Office building in the financial district of Azca in Madrid.Paul Hanna / Bloomberg / Bloomberg
The government approved last week the regulations that set the standards for salary audits, equality plans and their registration.
The Workers' Statute prohibits wage discrimination against two people of different sex who perform the same function.
However, reality shows that men charge more, on average, than women.
The lower presence of these in managerial positions, the brake of motherhood in professional careers, the unequal distribution of the conciliation or the lower seniority are some of the reasons.
This is the X-ray of the payroll within the Ibex 35 in fiscal year 2019 (there is no data from ArcelorMittal, Solaria and Merlin Properties).
The company found a gap between men and women in all its businesses of 5%.
In its production and business development area, the total average salary of a manager over 50 years of age is 127,610 euros for men and 88,481 euros in the case of women.
For the same age group in the case of technicians and graduates, the average payroll is 48,988 euros and 39,036 euros.
The gender pay difference was 3.75%.
The steel group argues that the incorporation of female workers has occurred mainly in recent years, "which implies differences in the total remuneration received with the seniority supplement."
Another factor to take into account, as indicated by the company in its annual report, is the perception of other salary concepts related to work shifts, “carried out mainly by men”.
Male managers and university graduates earned an average of 80,583 euros in 2019 compared to 67,031 euros for women.
In the case of the difference in the group of ungraduate and administrative technicians, it was 49,583 euros compared to 34,678 euros.
"The differences are mainly due to the greater presence in activities such as infrastructures in countries with a higher per capita income, as well as the typology, specialization, working hours, seniority, risk factors of the different activities of the group," says ACS in his memory.
The airport manager says that his collective agreement does not discriminate on the basis of sex.
However, the numbers do point to remuneration differences (30%) that are due to "the existence of different occupations included in the same category".
The average remuneration of Aena's senior management in the case of men was 130,380 euros compared to 99,211 for women;
on the other hand, in the group "managers and graduates" they earned more on average (68,809 euros) than they (64,342).
The pharmaceutical workers received an average salary of 82,559 euros last year and the workers stayed at 67,213 euros.
The average salary gap in the air reservation manager in 2019 was 10.1% and the median 9.1%.
On average, an Amadeus worker earned € 67,887, while the payroll among women was € 56,923.
The average total remuneration last year was 54,123 euros for men and 34,273 euros for women.
Santander uses two types of metrics.
On the one hand, the gender pay gap, which was 31% and which measures the difference in remuneration, regardless of the nature of their work, in an organization.
"The differences stem mainly from factors such as the lower representation of women in managerial and business positions, and their greater presence in retail and support banking positions."
The other metric it uses is gender pay equity, which was 2% and is calculated by comparing salaries between men and women who perform the same job, at the same level, and in the same function.
The entity has detected a salary difference of 11.87% in Spain, which is explained by "the lower seniority of the female group and the lower presence of women in managerial positions".
In Sabadell, on average men earned 60,462 euros last year compared to the 45,660 euros that women received.
The adjusted salary gap of the state-controlled entity in 2019 stood at 4.16%.
The salary differences are greater in positions of greater responsibility.
Thus, the average remuneration of managers was 83,329 euros for men and 70,119 euros in the case of women.
For the rest of the group's employees, the average salary was 53,364 euros for men and 48,187 euros for women.
In 2019, the gap for positions of equal value in the bank as a whole was 1.3%.
In the management team, the average remuneration for those over 45 years of age was 94,319 euros in the case of men and 60,126 euros in women, while in this same group, but for people under 45 years of age, the distribution by sex It is 66,065 euros compared to 46,223 euros respectively.
Among middle managers, male workers earn 59,177 euros on average if they are over 45 years of age and 48,929 for those below that age;
while women receive 37,813 and 30,566 euros respectively.
The entity distinguishes between the average remuneration gap (19% in 2019) and the wage gap (compares wages between employees with the same seniority who perform the same function), which stands at 1.69% in the entire group, 0.63% in Caixabank and 5.3% in BPI.
If only the average remuneration in the Caixabank Group is taken into account, men received 65,857 euros, compared to 53,076 euros for women.
The average gap by category was 8.55% and 5.41% per job.
On average, men received 63,199 euros and women 46,410.
The greatest difference occurs in senior management (323,314 euros compared to 255,823 euros) and middle managers (80,792 vs 68,382), while in the “staff” women earn a little more on average (27,609 euros) than men (27,053 euros).
In the management area, men received an average of 177,109 euros last year and women 156,866 euros.
In the category of bosses and managers, the distribution was 88,164 and 89,543 euros respectively, while among the group "coordinators, other employees", the average remuneration was 46,764 euros (men) and 45,567 euros (women).
The gap was 5%, with an average gross remuneration for men of 15,450 euros and 14,750 euros for women.
In 2018 the gap amounted to 13%.
In 2019, the wage gap, understood as the base wage difference, was 2.9%.
Last year, men on average earned 85,031 euros compared to the 72,563 euros that female workers received.
The biggest difference occurs in the managers: they earned an average of 180,542 euros and they only 158,421 euros.
The company attributes this to the fact that there are more men in this category and their seniority is higher.
In 2019, the average salary between men and women shows a distance of 8.4% .. In electricity, on average men received 67,240 euros, for women 61,565 euros, although there are notable variations depending on which professional category is analyzed.
"The most significant differences are caused by the effect of the number of years of permanence in the company, the incorporation under different collective agreements and by the lower presence of women in certain positions of high technical content."
For its part, the 2019 wage gap, using the median, was 2.5%.
In his business in Spain, last year the average wage gap was 15.5%, in the United Kingdom it was 25.6% and in the United States it was -1.7%.
In the national business, the average salary for men stood at 32,503 euros while women received 27,464 euros.
The blood products group uses the adjusted wage gap in its analysis.
This ratio is calculated using econometric models that "isolate" the effect on salaries of factors such as age, length of time, working hours or training.
The result is a gap of 5.1% in Spain (17.5% unadjusted) and 2.2% in the US In Spain, a senior manager earns 192,914 euros on average and a senior manager 136,106 euros. that a senior professional receives 43,729 euros (he) and 40,595 euros (she).
In 2019, the average remuneration for men was 47,597 and 37,963 euros in the case of women.
Among the senior executives the distribution was 276,900 euros compared to 233,449 euros;
in the case of other members of the management team, the gap was 81,431 euros compared to 59,676 euros;
while in the category of “other employees”, men received an average of 46,658 euros compared to 37,346 euros for women.
The electricity company is one of the few companies in the Ibex where they (50,086 euros) charge more than they (47,614 euros) on average.
Among those over 51 years of age, employees earn more (75,089 euros) than female employees (66,993 euros);
between 31 and 50 years, men received 43,458 euros compared to 50,487 euros for women;
while in the case of those under 30 years of age, the average male payroll was 23,357 euros compared to 25,183 euros for women.
The average remuneration of women last year was 21,142 euros gross per year, while that of men was 24,897 euros.
Despite this difference, the wage gap reported by Inditex is 0.2% higher in favor of women (0.8% in 2018) since in the absolute figures there is a proportion of women "in a significant number of markets in which the local currency conversion results in a lower figure in euros ”.
The gap stands at 3.03%.
"This difference is influenced by the historical composition of the company and the lower seniority of the group in the company", explains Indra in its annual report.
The greatest salary difference occurs in managerial positions for those over 50 years of age, where men received an average of 167,654 euros in 2019 compared to 114,917 euros for women.
The smallest salary distance is found among the group of "technicians" between 30 and 50 years old: 26,904 euros vs 24,029.
In 2019, the gap in the management of Colonial was -3%, in the case of those responsible for 22% and among the administrative 11%.
The adjusted gap over the group's fixed remuneration was 3.06%, being higher in Spain (5.96%).
In the domestic business, last year managers received an average fixed salary of 73,343 euros and managers 56,131 euros;
in the case of technicians, the distribution was 40,751 euros (men) and 34,871 euros (women);
while in the administrative ones it was 30,287 euros and 27,215 euros, respectively.
In the hotel management, the gap was 0.76%, with an average salary of 115,645 euros (men) and 88,241 euros (women);
Among the middle managers there is almost parity (40,044 euros compared to 39,855) and in the case of basic personnel, women received on average a higher salary (15,936 euros) than men (12,877 euros).
The workers of the energy group received an average of 58,755 euros in 2019 while the workers received 52,111 euros.
The largest gap (23.1%) is in the category of "operators" where men received 37,982 euros and women 29,207 euros.
Among the managers, they earned 114,090 euros and they 99,173 euros.
The average remuneration by sex was 90,231 euros for men and 70,027 euros in the case of women.
On average, employees earned € 61,267 in 2019 and female employees € 57,692.
The main gap is in the address: 150,604 euros (men) and 137,330 euros (women).
The oil company recalls that in its collective agreements "in no case do they establish remuneration differences based on gender."
Even so, the wage gap in Spain is 0.95%.
An average manager received 320,230 euros and a woman 279,853 euros;
in the case of technical managers, the distribution was 99,284 and 93,909 euros;
between the technicians the distance was from 58,089 euros to 51,341 euros;
among administrative workers, salaries were 52,601 and 40,043 euros, respectively.
Women had a higher average gross salary (base plus variables) (53,369 euros) than men (46,888 euros).
The group's gross gap is 0.191% and the adjusted one is 0.031%.
The total average remuneration of the operator in the case of men in 2019 was 41,076 euros and for women it was 33,235 euros.
The higher proportion of managers in the sector, the work-life balance and the scarce presence of women in science, technology and engineering careers are the main factors identified by the company when explaining these differences.
Employees received 33,531 euros on average in 2019 and female employees only 23,688 euros.
"The gap is similar to that of other industrial companies," says Viscofán, who attributes the difference to the level of specialization, dangerousness or seniority bonuses, and night shifts, among other factors.