Prime Minister Edouard Philippe had trumpeted it in December: “Women will be the big winners of the pension reform. This is all the more sensitive since there is an average 42% difference between women's and men's retirement pensions. Currently men receive 1,800 euros on average, and women around 1,000 euros. Differences due to wage inequalities, the overrepresentation of women in poorly paid feminized jobs, part-time (30% of working women) and career breaks for maternity and parental leave.
Two major questions remained unanswered: “At what age will mothers have to work? "And" How much will they get? ". And the answers of this study do not really go in the direction of the will of the government nor the demands of the unions which support the reform, CFDT in head.
From € 50 to € 300 loss per month
Indeed, the new point system will, in many cases, be less favorable to mothers unless they decide to work longer: from € 50 to € 300 loss per month, depending on the case. This is what emerges from an interim version of the impact study of the bill, drafted by the government, which we were able to consult. Six typical cases of women with children are detailed in the study, which takes into account the generations born in 1980 and in 1990. Five relate to full careers and one presents a "bumpy" career.
What are the lessons of this government simulation? Only two profiles stand out if they leave before age 65. On the one hand, a “manager with a very ascending career”, with a pension level greater than € 4,000 gross monthly. And, at the other end of the spectrum, an employee with a “hit career” with a pension of less than € 1,000.
Women of the lower classes penalized
But four other profiles will lose out in the future system, if these employees decide to leave between 62 and 65, whether these women are mothers of two or three children. They are two employees on the minimum wage (one full-time, the other part-time), one employee “non-executive with ascending career” and another having had her entire career “a salary medium ”: for all these representatives of the modest and middle classes, the universal system will be clearly penalizing if they retire before age 65.
In this new system, an increase of 5% per child, from the first child, replaces the four quarters granted, until now, per child from the second. By default, this increase, which may be shared between the two parents or devolved to the father, will be allocated to the mother.
The six standard cases of the study retain the hypothesis of allocating the 10% increase in full to the mother. For the four losing profiles, the amount of pensions could therefore be even lower if the increase is shared with the father.
The impact study reveals the government's underlying reasoning: the equilibrium age (where one can start without a discount) will be 65 for people born from 1975. It is there stipulated that "in most typical cases, the universal system becomes more favorable from the moment the insured person liquidates his retirement from the equilibrium age".
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These conclusions are in line with the fierce opponents of the reform who already denounced a negative impact for mothers and women in general. Several studies had highlighted this black spot that the government had swept away, describing their conclusions as "eccentric".