The recovery of economic activity after the pandemic - +10.4% in 2021 and +5.2% in 2022 - was accompanied by the increase in
employment , with
lower wages, and informal self-employment,
which has been translated into greater job insecurity and higher poverty rates even among those who are employed and registered.
The employment that grew the most both in 2021 and during 2022 was that of unregistered wage earners.
After the collapse in 2020 due to the pandemic and quarantine, in 2021, jobs
grew 4.4%, when those of unregistered wage earners more than doubled
(+10.4%), going from 4,486,000 to 4,975,000.
In 2022, job positions increased 5.8%, and those of unregistered wage earners more than doubled: they added a record of 5,613,000
at the end of last year,
an increase of 12.9%, equivalent to 641,000 positions labor.
The 5,613,000 informal jobs, which far exceed the 5,119,000 at the end of 2019,
are equivalent to 43.3% of a total of 12,955,000 jobs
for salaried employees in a private dependency relationship, according to the "Account for income generation and labor input" that the INDEC released on Tuesday.
In 2021, that proportion was 41.4%.
In addition, there are 5,720,000 independent or self-employed jobs – a high proportion of which are precarious and informal -- and 3,690,000 in the public sector.
In total there are 22,365,000 jobs versus 21,130,000 a year ago.
There are 1,235,000 more jobs, of which just over half are informal wage earners.
Among those registered, the increase was 350,000 jobs.
And self-employment, mostly informal, increased by 245,000.
A good part of this sector are positions in a dependency relationship hired as
"invoicers" or Monotributistas.
In the public sector,
job positions rose from 3,649,000 to 3,690,000: there were 41,000 new positions.
In four activities, there are more unregistered wage earners than registered ones: private household personnel out of 1,711,000 jobs, 1,204,000 are not registered (70.3%), despite official incentives to register female workers Particular houses.
In agriculture and livestock 1,279,000 employees, 650,000 are not registered (50.8%), with 613,000 "independent" jobs.
In private social and health services, out of 698,000, 371,000 (53.2%) are not registered.
And in Other community, social and personal service activities, out of a million, 501,000 are not registered.
All these official data mark the strong advance of labor precariousness.
And together with the deterioration of wages, the labor cost was lowering, which infers that the recovery of the economy was encouraged by the impoverishment of the labor force, both registered and unregistered.
Coinciding with the INDEC, based on data from the fourth quarter of last year, the Directorate of Statistics and Censuses of the City of Buenos Aires reported that "in the City, 314,000 wage-earners make up the population without registration in Security Social or who contribute exclusively by themselves
without their employer making the statutory retirement discounts.
This means that a little more than one in four wage-earners and wage-earners are in precarious employment conditions”.
The Buenos Aires Report indicates that "in relation to the fourth quarter of 2021, the population that
works on its own increased 6.0%,
reaching the highest record in the series, which began at the end of 2014. Meanwhile, if the comparison is made against 2019, the rise is 10.8%".
Those who are not registered lack social security benefits, have lower wages, do not have coverage for work accidents, and are not entitled to Social Security retirement and pension benefits.
In addition, it explains why when they reach retirement age they do not meet the 30 years of contributions to access retirement, and they have to resort to moratoriums, assuming the payment for the periods not contributed by their employers.
Or retire with the PUAM (Universal Pension for the Elderly) with 80% of the minimum credit.