Dutch NGOs accuse Shell of failing to implement a 2021 ruling ordering it to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. Shell considers the 2021 verdict “ineffective and even counterproductive in the fight against climate change” Shell denies having ignored the 2021 court decision.

The appeal trial, which is scheduled to last four days, was launched in April 2019 by several NGOs, including Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. The judgment was described as historic by activists, who welcomed the fact that no other multinational had been forced by the courts to align with the 2015 Paris climate agreement.