Diabetes is one of the most common widespread diseases.
If left untreated, organs are damaged, in the worst case a diabetic coma with fatal consequences occurs.
Doctors differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
The first form is triggered by a false reaction of the own immune system and usually begins at a young age.
The patient's immune system attacks those cells in the pancreas that produce the hormone insulin.
More than 5 million people in Germany are affected by diabetes - also known as diabetes mellitus or diabetes *.
Of these, over 90 percent have type 2 diabetes, as reported by Diabetes Germany.
This form of the disease is also known as adult-onset diabetes.
Obesity, poor diet, smoking or too little exercise are all risk factors.
Find out here which symptoms speak for diabetes and what to do immediately in the event of a diabetic coma.
No matter whether diabetes type 1 or 2: Both metabolic disorders have the same consequence.
The sugar metabolism does not work normally, which drives the blood sugar level up permanently.
The reasons for this: The body can no longer produce the hormone insulin in sufficient quantities (type 1 diabetes) or can no longer use it well (type 2 diabetes).
The diabetes must be treated in any case, because a permanently high blood sugar level damages the blood vessels, which can lead to sensory disturbances such as tingling in the feet.
Organs like the kidney are also damaged.
In the worst case, patients fall into a diabetic coma - with life-threatening consequences
Recognizing type 2 diabetes: The following symptoms should be taken seriously
As the portal diabetes-deutschland.de informs, doctors suspect a high number of unrecognized diabetes patients.
The reason for this is that the symptoms of diabetes often cannot be clearly assigned, but can also speak for other diseases.
The following symptoms can indicate type 2 diabetes as the most common form of the disease:
chronic fatigue and lack of drive
Pain and tingling in your arms, legs, hands, or feet
slowly healing wounds
common infectious diseases
Impaired consciousness and loss of consciousness (diabetic coma) with extremely high blood sugar levels
Type 2 diabetes can develop over the years without symptoms, as the Health Information Portal of the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) provides.
That is why the diagnosis is often unexpected.
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Diet in Diabetes
Diet in Diabetes
The book "Diabetes: The Shopping Advisor from A - Z" by GU (promotional link) gives diabetics a comprehensive overview of the right foods.
For example, the carbohydrate exchange table shows at a glance how many grams of the most important carbohydrate-supplying staple foods correspond exactly to one bread unit.
Another extensive table lists everything from staple foods to fast food dishes with the information of bread units, carbohydrates, kcal, protein and fat per 100 g and per usual portion size.
Act immediately in the event of a diabetic coma
There are different forms of diabetic coma, on the one hand the hyperosmolar coma and on the other hand the ketoacidotic coma.
The former usually only affects type 2 diabetics.
Blood sugar levels of over 600 mg / dl occur, which results in a high loss of fluid in the body.
The increased excretion of urine leads to a loss of electrolytes:
those affected dry out internally (desiccosis)
Usually only type 1 diabetes patients are affected by the ketoacidotic or acidic coma.
Metabolic imbalances occur because there is a lack of insulin in the body - for example when people forget to inject insulin.
The hyperosmolar coma is significantly rarer than the ketoacidotic and usually develops slowly over days and weeks, as diabetes-ratgeber.net informs.
Fatigue, vision problems, calf cramps or weight loss are precursors that precede a hyperosmolar coma, as Heilpraxisnet reports.
Medical clarification is necessary so that the diabetes can be controlled properly and a diabetic coma can be prevented.
To prevent an over-acid coma, patients with a high blood sugar level (over 250 mg / dl) and a ketone body test that shows over-acidity should take the countermeasures discussed with their doctor.
In case of doubt, however, you should always alert the emergency number 112
Causes: These risk factors promote type 2 diabetes
In type 2 diabetics, the pancreas usually still produces enough insulin at the beginning of the disease, but muscle, liver and fat cells are becoming increasingly insensitive to this, as the portal for internists informs on the Internet.
It may well be that the insulin values in the blood of type 2 diabetics are normal or elevated, but there is too little insulin in the body in relation to the blood sugar values.
The reason for this is that the pancreas produces more insulin to compensate for the insulin resistance.
In the advanced stage of type 2 diabetes, however, the body cells become more and more insensitive and the pancreas can no longer compensate for this
, according to the specialist portal for internists on the Internet.
The body's cells no longer absorb enough sugar (glucose), it remains in the bloodstream and leads to rising blood sugar levels there - the diagnosis “Type 2 diabetes” is made.
risk factors for the onset of insulin resistance, the body cells
heredity, obesity apply, too little exercise and medications that negatively affect blood sugar.
These include, for example, antihypertensive drugs such as beta blockers, antidepressants or birth control pills.
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Treat type 2 diabetes - change your diet, reduce stress, quit smoking
According to guidelines, the basic therapy for type 2 diabetes consists of a change in diet and exercise.
This also includes patient training, non-smoking and stress management strategies ”, informs the German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD).
Above all, nutrition plays an important role in diabetes therapy.
A balanced, low-fat and low-sugar diet reduces obesity, which is the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
Depending on the stage of the disease, antidiabetic drugs in tablet form or special drugs for injection are also used
According to the DZD, insulin therapy is usually only necessary in advanced diabetes.
(jg) * Merkur.de belongs to the Germany-wide Ippen-Digital editorial network
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