Status: 23/09/2023, 19:12 p.m.
By: Stella Henrich
How much electricity does a conventional heat pump actually consume per year? And how much does it cost to consume energy? Three factors are crucial for the calculation.
Frankfurt \u2012 With the new Building Energy Act (GEG for short), Germany has spoken out in favour of the energy transition in this country in order to strengthen climate protection. Owners now know which fuels and heating systems they are allowed to use to fuel or heat their homes. Whether it's solar thermal energy on the roof, a biomass heating system or a pellet heating system that is fired with wood – from next year onwards, the heat transition will get serious.
The Federal Government has set the course with the GEG. The new heating systems must meet the legal requirements. This means that from 2024 onwards, 65 percent of every newly installed heating system will have to be powered by renewable energies. It is already becoming apparent that the installation of a heat pump makes economic sense. According to a study by the WWF, experts assume a savings potential of at least 400 euros per year compared to gas heating for homeowners. But how is the electricity consumption of a heat pump actually calculated?
How much electricity does a heat pump consume per year? Three key figures are necessary for the calculation. (Symbolic image) © IMAGO
Do you want to quickly install a heat pump now? Energy consumption depends on various factors
Winter is coming. Homeowners are therefore likely to ask themselves, is it worth installing a heat pump to reduce heating costs in the cold season? Although homeowners should take into account that there may currently be longer waiting times for the delivery of a pump. According to Norddeutscher Rundfunk, waiting times of six to twelve months are currently normal. According to Handelsblatt, heating engineers are unable to keep up with the rapidly increasing demand for heat pumps.
If you decide to install a heat pump, you can already calculate the electricity consumption of a heat pump yourself. To do this, it is necessary to take into account not only energy consumption, but also various other factors. The calculation is based on the values of a Vitocal 250 A heat pump, a model from the manufacturer Viessmann. The pump was rated 2.9 by Stiftung Warentest (issue of November 15, 2022). The exemplary model is an air-to-water heat pump.
The energy consumption of the heat pump depends on various factors:
- from the heating power – this is specified by the pump, here: 13.4 kW
- from the seasonal performance factor (SPF) – the value is measured and says something about the efficiency of the heating system. The JAZ describes the electricity-heat ratio. The higher the seasonal performance factor, the more effectively the heat pump works. The seasonal performance factor is influenced by the set flow temperature, the heat source, the outside temperature and the insulation of the building. In addition, one's own usage behavior determines this number.
- from the operating hours – they indicate how long the heating runs during the year
- Source: chip.de
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Installing a heat pump before winter? – Determine key figures and then determine consumption
Once the essential factors are known or determined, the power consumption of the heat pump can then be calculated. The formula for this is: Heating capacity divided by the seasonal performance factor multiplied by the operating hours.
To determine the seasonal performance factor, consumers can in turn use the JAZ calculator of the German Heat Pump Association. For the Vitocal 250 A model, this results in a total seasonal performance factor of 4.37. Assuming that the pump now runs for 2000 operating hours per year, this results in a final result of 6133 kWh. This means that the pump consumes about 6133 kWh per year.
Air-to-water heat pumps
Heat pumps extract energy from the outside air or the ground, which can be used to operate a heating system. According to Stiftung Warentest, the ambient air cools faster than the ground in frosty weather. However, these types of pumps are also less efficient and can produce low-frequency noise. The purchase of an air-to-water heat pump can cost more than 30,000 euros. They are particularly suitable for single-family homes. According to the report of the consumer advocates, their promotion is linked to strict efficiency requirements.
Installing heat pumps – costs compared to gas and oil
If you want to know what the average annual costs for the heat pump are, you have to multiply the number of kWh per year by the current electricity price of your energy provider. For our example, we expect a price of 32.09 cents per kWh, which is equivalent to an upper tariff price according to the Federal Network Agency: 6133 kWh multiplied by 32.09 cents per kWh corresponds to an annual total amount of around 1968 euros.
However, the comparison portal verivox.de currently provides significantly cheaper offers in the heating current comparison for heat pumps. Yello customers, for example, pay around 1592 euros per year, while Süwag customers pay 1902 euros. For a gas heating system, a family of four people with a consumption of 18,000 kWh per year in Frankfurt pays around 1682 euros from the local energy provider Mainova.
According to heizspiegel.de in the apartment building, tenants had to pay between 70 and 2021 euros for a centrally operated oil heating system for an average 610-square-meter apartment in the 1015 accounting year. The cost depended on the year of construction of the house. In direct comparison, a heat pump costs between 530 and 905 euros. In the case of gas, the cost is 525 and 875 euros.