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(CNN Spanish) - Saying “ illegal alien” to someone in New York could get you fined for up to $ 250,000. But in these Latin American countries, making comments or discriminatory acts also has consequences: sometimes it not only gives a fine but even several years in jail.
The New York City Human Rights Commission announced new guidelines for all public, employment and housing establishments that prohibit discrimination against foreigners or immigrants because of their English proficiency or threaten to call immigration authorities.
These measures are especially focused on xenophobia, but hate crimes also include discrimination based on race, sex, sexual orientation, among others. These are some countries with punitive penalties for discriminating.
In 2011, Colombia adopted measures in favor of discriminated or marginalized groups. Law 1482 aims to guarantee the protection of the rights of persons who are violated through acts of racism or discrimination.
Anyone who discriminates on the basis of race, religion, political ideology, or national ethnic or cultural origin will have a fine “of ten (10) to fifteen (15) current legal minimum monthly wages”, that is, today represents about 2,400 to 3,500 dollars. In addition, justice could impose between 12 to 36 months in jail.
The penalties will be aggravated if the conduct occurs in a public space, through the media, by a public servant, against a child or older adult or if it is aimed at denying or restricting labor rights.
READ : The 'pantone' of discrimination: racial bias in Colombian public servants
In a report of the Ministry of Labor, Migration and Social Security of Spain, which analyzes cases and sentences on racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and other forms of intolerance between 2014 and 2016, the people who imposed themselves according to the “ hate motive. ”
That is, prison in cases of hatred for religion (42%), disability (40%) and political ideology (32%); special disqualification for passive suffrage in cases of disability (40%), religious reasons (37%) and aporophobia (25%); prohibition of approach and communication in cases of motivation sexual orientation (16%) and political ideology (14%).
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But there are other types of penalties: the prohibition of the right to arms, absolute disqualification and fines.
For example, according to Organic Law 4/2000 on the rights and freedoms of foreigners in Spain and their social integration, discrimination on racial, ethnic, national or religious grounds provides for an economic fine ranging from 6,000 to 60,000 euros (between 6,500 and $ 65,000).
In addition, very serious infractions regarding labor relations and employment, among others, can reach fines of around 90,000 euros (98,000 dollars).
In 2017, the Chamber of Senators of Mexico approved the criminal sanction of acts that violate the right to equality and non-discrimination, based on religious beliefs or disability circumstances.
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Whoever discriminates will be imposed a penalty of one to three years in prison, or 150 to 300 days of work in favor of the community and up to 200 days fine (equivalent to the daily salary of the sentenced at the time of consummation of the crime) . The penalty is aggravated in the case of public servants who deny access to rights.
In Law 045 of 2010, Bolivia established the mechanisms to eliminate the behaviors of racism and all forms of discrimination in the country.
Racism is sanctioned with three to seven years in prison, with aggravating factors if the act is committed by a public authority, if it occurs in the provision of a public service or if it includes violence.
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Discrimination, on the other hand, encompasses the following grounds in the law: “sex, age, gender, sexual orientation and gender identity, cultural identity, family affiliation, nationality, citizenship, language, religious creed, ideology, political or philosophical opinion , marital status, economic or social status, illness, type of occupation, degree of education, different abilities or physical, intellectual or sensory disability, state of pregnancy, regional origin, physical appearance and clothing ”.
And it is sanctioned with imprisonment of one to five years. Like a person who disseminates ideas based on superiority or racial hatred or incites violence or persecution of people for racist reasons.