For more than thirty years, the Middle East has been going through crises, shocks and ruptures.
The collapse of the Soviet bloc established the United States as the sole hyperpower;
the attacks of September 11, 2001 and the advent of globalized Islamist terrorism, with al-Qaida and the Islamic State, upset Islam and the balance of the world and the region.
The Arab Springs, with their hopes and failures, have underlined the permanent friction between sometimes fragile democratic aspirations and authoritarian, identity, extremist tensions.
The Iranian threat
The Middle East is undergoing a transformation.
The causes and consequences are multiple: the collapse of Iraq after the American intervention, then of Yemen and Libya;
the Syrian tragedy and the exodus of several million refugees, causing the greatest humanitarian emergency of our era;
the virtual disappearance, in certain countries, of Christians who have always been present;
abandonment by Westerners, a
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