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Chinese-English Bilingual | Blinken Delivers Full Text of U.S. Policy Speech on China

2022-05-27T09:14:01.431Z

US Secretary of State Blinken delivered a speech on May 26 outlining the Biden administration's China policy. The following is the Chinese translation of the full text of the speech organized by Hong Kong 01. The full text originally appeared on the U.S. State Department website. (United States) to the Chinese people



US Secretary of State Blinken delivered a speech on May 26 outlining the Biden administration's China policy.

The following is the Chinese translation of the full text of the speech organized by Hong Kong 01.

The full text originally appeared on the U.S. State Department website.


(U.S.) Administrative Approach to the People’s Republic of China

Anthony Blinken, Secretary of State

George Washington University (where the speech was held)

Washington, USA (city where the speech was held)

The picture shows U.S. Secretary of State Blinken speaking at George Washington University on May 26, 2022.

In his speech, he outlined the Biden administration's China policy.

The event is hosted by the Asia Society.

(AP)

SECRETARY BLINKIN: Thank you.

Good morning.

Great to be here at George Washington University.

It is an institution that attracts outstanding students and scholars from around the world, where the most pressing challenges we face as a nation and as a planet are studied and debated.

So thank you for having us here today.

I especially want to thank my friends at Asia Society who are committed to building closer ties with Asian countries and peoples, working to promote peace, prosperity, freedom, equality and sustainable development.

Thank you (referring to the association) for hosting us today, but also for your leadership every day.

Kevin Rudd, Wendy Cutler, Danny Russel - all colleagues, all thought leaders, and doers, it's always been great to be with you.

I have to say, I'm really grateful for Senator Mitt Romney for being here today -- a man I admire so much, a leader, a man of great principle, who has been there for what we're going to be Discuss the topic of leadership about today.

Senator, thank you for coming.

I am also happy to see so many members of the diplomatic corps, because diplomacy is an indispensable tool in shaping our common future.

Over the past two years, we have worked together to combat the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) pandemic, prepare for future global health emergencies, rebuild from economic shocks, supply chain disruptions to debt crises, combat climate change, And reimagine the energy future that is cleaner, safer and more affordable.

What these efforts have in common is the simple fact that none of us can meet these challenges alone.

We must face them together.

That's why we're putting diplomacy back at the center of U.S. foreign policy to help us achieve the future Americans and people around the world are looking for - technology to empower people, not suppress them; trade and commerce to support workers, A place where incomes increase and opportunities are created; where universal human rights are respected; where nations are free from coercion and aggression, and where people, ideas, goods and capital flow freely; where nations can blaze their own paths and collaborate effectively in a common cause.

To build this future, we must defend and reform the rules-based international order—the system of laws, agreements, principles, and institutions that the world built together after the two world wars to manage relations between nations, prevent conflict, and preserve the rights of all.

Its founding documents include the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which contain concepts such as self-determination, sovereignty, and the peaceful settlement of disputes.

These are not Western structures.

They reflect the common aspirations of the world.

In the decades since, the nations of the world have avoided another world war, and armed conflict between nuclear powers, despite the daunting challenges and the gap between our ideals and some of our achievements.

We built a global economy that lifted billions out of poverty.

We promote human rights like never before.

Now, as we look to the future, we must not only maintain this international order to make the most progress possible, but also modernize it, ensuring that it represents the interests, values ​​and hopes of all nations, large and small, from all regions; in addition, , it can meet the challenges we face now and in the future, many of which are beyond what the world could have imagined 70 years ago.

But this outcome is not guaranteed, as the foundations of the international order are facing serious and ongoing challenges.

Russian President Vladimir Putin poses a clear and present threat.

When Russia attacked Ukraine three months ago, he also attacked the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity enshrined in the UN Charter to protect all nations from subjugation or coercion.

That is why so many countries have united against this aggression, which they see as a direct attack on the foundations of their own peace and security.

With unprecedented assistance from the United States and countries around the world, Ukraine is heroically defending its people and independence.

While the war is not over, President Putin has failed to achieve one of his strategic goals.

Instead of erasing Ukraine's independence, he strengthened it.

Instead of splitting NATO, he united it.

Instead of touting Russia's strength, he undercuts it.

Instead of weakening the international order, he has brought nations together to defend it.

Even as President Putin's war against Ukraine continues, we will remain focused on the most serious long-term challenge to the international order - which is posed by the People's Republic of China.

Vladimir Putin: The picture shows Russian President Vladimir Putin attending a meeting in Moscow on May 25, 2022.

(AP)

China is the only country that has both the intent to reshape the international order and a growing number of economic, diplomatic, military and technological forces to do so.

Beijing's vision will move us away from the universal values ​​that have kept the world progressing for the past 75 years.

China is also an integral part of the global economy and part of our ability to address challenges ranging from climate to Covid-19.

In short, the United States and China must deal with each other for the foreseeable future.

That's why this is one of the most complex and important relationships in our world today.

Last year, the Biden administration developed and implemented a comprehensive strategy to leverage our national strength and our unparalleled network of allies and partners to achieve the future we seek.

We are not looking for conflict or a new cold war.

Instead, we are determined to avoid both.

We do not seek to prevent China from functioning as a great power, nor do we prevent China—or any other country—from developing its economy or advancing the interests of its people.

But we will defend and strengthen the international laws, agreements, principles and institutions that maintain peace and security, protect the rights of individuals and sovereign nations, and enable all nations, including the United States and China, to coexist and cooperate.

Today's China is very different from the China of 50 years ago, when Richard Nixon broke decades of tension to become the first US president to visit the country.

China was then isolated and struggled with widespread poverty and hunger.

Now, China is a global power with extraordinary influence and ambition.

It is the second largest economy in the world with a world-class city and public transport network.

It's home to some of the world's largest tech companies

seeking to dominate the tech and industries of the future.

It is rapidly modernizing its military and intends to become a top fighting force with global reach.

It also announced ambitions to establish a sphere of influence in the Indo-Pacific and become a world power.

The transformation of China is because of the talent, ingenuity and hard work of the Chinese people.

This is also made possible by the stability and opportunities provided by the international order.

It can be said that no country on earth has benefited more from it than China.

But rather than using its power to strengthen and revitalize the laws, agreements, principles and institutions that have made it successful so that other countries can benefit from them, Beijing is undermining them.

Under President Xi, the ruling Chinese Communist Party has become more repressive at home and more aggressive abroad.

We saw how Beijing improved mass surveillance within China and exported the technology to more than 80 countries; how it advanced illegal maritime claims in the South China Sea, undermining peace and security, freedom of navigation and commerce; how it circumvented or violated trade rules, harming workers and companies in the U.S. and around the world; and how it claims to defend sovereignty and territorial integrity while standing with governments that flagrantly violate them.

Even when Russia was apparently mobilizing to invade Ukraine, President Xi and President Putin declared that the friendship between their countries was - I quote - "unlimited".

Just this week, when President Biden visited Japan, China and Russia jointly patrolled the area with strategic bombers.

Beijing’s defense of President Putin’s war to remove Ukraine’s sovereignty and secure its sphere of influence in Europe

should be a wake-up call for all of us who call the Indo-Pacific home.

For these reasons and more, this is a time of intense controversy for the world.

At times like these, diplomacy is crucial.

It's how we express our deep concerns, better understand each other's perspectives, and have no doubts about each other's intentions.

We stand ready to strengthen direct communication with Beijing on various issues.

We hope this will happen.

But we cannot expect Beijing to change its trajectory.

Therefore, we will shape the strategic environment around Beijing to advance our vision for an open and inclusive international system.

President Biden believes this decade will be decisive.

The actions we take at home and with countries around the world will determine whether our shared vision for the future can be realized.

To succeed in this defining decade, the Biden administration's strategy can be summed up in three words - "invest, adjust, compete."

We will invest in our base of strength at home—our competitiveness, our innovation, our democracy.

We will align with our network of allies and partners, acting with a common purpose and a common cause.

Using these two key assets, we will compete with China to defend our interests and build our vision for the future.

We meet this challenge with confidence.

Our country has many advantages.

We have peaceful neighbors, a diverse and growing population, abundant resources, the world's reserve currency, the most powerful military on the planet, and a thriving culture of innovation and entrepreneurship that, for example, has produced multiple effective vaccines, and now Can protect people all over the world from Covid-19.

And our open societies, at their best, attract the flow of talent and investment, and have a time-tested ability to reshape, rooted in our democracy, enabling us to meet any challenge we face.

The picture shows in March 2021, a vaccine center in Philadelphia, USA, is preparing for the Johnson & Johnson vaccine.

(AP)

First, about investing in our strength.

After World War II, as we and our partners established a rules-based order, our federal government was also making strategic investments in scientific research, education, infrastructure, labor, creating millions of middle-class jobs and dozens of Years of prosperity and technological leadership.

But we take these foundations for granted.

So it's time to get back to basics.

A Biden administration is making far-reaching investments in our core sources of national strength—starting with modern industrial strategies to maintain and expand our economic and technological influence, make our economies and supply chains more resilient, and enhance our competitive advantage .

Last year, President Biden signed into law the largest infrastructure investment in our history: modernize our highways, ports, airports, railroads and bridges; get goods to market faster and increase our productivity; Expanding high-speed Internet to every corner of the country; attracting more businesses and more jobs to more parts of the United States.

We are making strategic investments in education and worker training so that American workers — the best in the world — can design, build and operate the technology of the future.

Because our industrial strategy is technology-centric, we want to invest in research, development and advanced manufacturing.

Sixty years ago, our government spent more than twice as much on research as it does today—and these investments, in turn, fueled innovation in the private sector.

This is how we won the space race, invented semiconductors, and built the Internet.

We used to be number one in the world in R&D as a percentage of GDP - now we're number nine.

Meanwhile, China rose from eighth to second.

With bipartisan congressional support, we will reverse these trends and make historic investments in research and innovation, including in artificial intelligence, biotechnology, quantum computers, and more.

These are areas where Beijing is determined to lead - but given America's superiority, the competition is ours to lose, not only in developing new technologies, but also in shaping how they are used around the world so that they are rooted in democratic values, rather than authoritarian values.

The leadership -- Senator Romney and others -- in the House and Senate has passed bills that support this agenda, including billions of dollars to produce semiconductors here and strengthen other critical supply chains.

Now we need Congress to send the legislation to the President for signature.

We can get this done, we can't wait any longer - supply chains are working now, and if we don't pull them here, they'll build up elsewhere.

As President Biden has said, the Chinese Communist Party is lobbying against this legislation — because there is no better way to enhance our global standing and influence than to achieve domestic renaissance.

These investments will not only make America stronger; they will make us a stronger partner and ally.

One of the most powerful, even amazing things about America is that we have long been a destination for talented, motivated people from all over the planet.

These include millions of students from China who enrich our community and form lifelong bonds with Americans.

Last year, despite the pandemic, we issued more than 100,000 visas to Chinese students in just four months, our highest rate ever.

We're glad they chose to study in the US - we're lucky to have them.

We are fortunate when the world's best minds not only study here, but stay here—as more than 80 percent of Chinese students studying science and technology doctorates in the U.S. have done in recent years.

They help drive innovation at home, which is good for all of us.

We can be vigilant about our national security without closing the door.

We have deep differences with the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese government.

But these differences exist between governments and systems, not our people.

The American people have great respect for the Chinese people.

We respect their achievements, their history and their culture.

We place great value on the family and friendship bonds that bind us together.

We sincerely hope that our administration will work together on issues that affect their lives and the lives of Americans and the lives of people around the world.

In this defining decade, we will depend on another core source of national strength: our democracy.

A hundred years ago, if we asked what was a nation's wealth, we might have listed our land area, population size, military strength, and abundance of natural resources.

Thankfully, we're still rich on all of these attributes.

But, in this 21st century, more than ever, the true wealth of a nation is our people — our human resources — and our ability to unleash their full potential.

We do this with our democracy.

We debate, we argue, we disagree, we challenge each other, including our elected leaders.

We address our shortcomings openly; we don't pretend they don't exist or sweep them under the rug.

While progress can be painfully slow, difficult and ugly, in general we remain committed to building a society where people from all backgrounds can thrive, guided by our national values, which Unite, inspire and elevate us.

We are not perfect.

But as we do our best, we always strive to be — in the words of our Constitution — a better union.

Our democracy is designed to achieve this.

That's what the American people and the American model have to offer, and one of the most powerful assets in this race.

Now, Beijing thinks its model is better.

Party-led centralized systems are more efficient, less chaotic, and ultimately superior to democracy.

We do not seek to change China's political system.

Our task is to demonstrate once again that democracy can meet pressing challenges, create opportunity, and advance human dignity; that the future belongs to those who believe in freedom, and that all nations are free to chart their own course without coercion.

On May 23, Tokyo, Japan, the United States proposed the "Indo-Pacific Economic Framework", and Biden, Kishida Fumio, and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi attended the launching ceremony.

(AP)

President Biden emphasized these priorities during a visit to the district this week, where he reaffirmed our important security alliances with South Korea and Japan and deepened our economic and technological cooperation with both countries.

He launched the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF), a first-of-its-kind initiative in the region.

In the president's words, it will "help all our nations grow faster and more equitably".

As we've said, the IPEF renews America's economic leadership, but adapts it to the 21st century by addressing cutting-edge issues such as the digital economy, supply chains, clean energy, infrastructure, and corruption.

More than a dozen countries, including India, have joined.

IPEF members collectively account for more than one-third of the global economy.

The president also attended a summit of leaders of four countries - Australia, Japan, India and the United States.

The Quartet had never met at the leadership level before President Biden took office.

The Quartet has held four summits since his first leaders meeting last year.

It has become the leading regional team.

This week, it launched a new Indo-Pacific Partnership for Maritime Domain Awareness (IPMDA) so that our partners in the region can better monitor the waters off their coasts to Address illegal fishing and protect their maritime rights and sovereignty.

We are reinvigorating our partnership with ASEAN.

Earlier this month, we hosted the U.S.-ASEAN summit to discuss pressing issues such as public health and the climate crisis.

This week, seven ASEAN countries became founding members of the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework.

We are building bridges between our Indo-Pacific and European partners, including inviting our Asian allies to the NATO summit in Madrid next month.

We are strengthening peace and stability in the Indo-Pacific; for example, a new security partnership between Australia, the UK and the US called the Australia-UK-US Alliance (AUKUS).

We are helping countries in the region and around the world defeat COVID-19.

To date, the United States has provided nearly $20 billion for the global pandemic response.

This includes donating more than 540 million doses of safe and effective vaccines - not for sale - with no political strings attached, and we are delivering 1.2 billion doses globally.

We are coordinating with a group of 19 countries to develop a global action plan to get the vaccine in people's arms.

Because of all this diplomacy, we are more aligned with our partners in the Indo-Pacific, and we are working toward our shared goals in a more coordinated way.

We have also deepened our alliance across the Atlantic.

Last year, we established the US-EU Trade & Technology Council, which together account for nearly 50% of global GDP.

Last week, I attended our second meeting with Secretary Raimondo (U.S. Secretary of Commerce), Ambassador Dai (U.S. Trade Representative Dai Qi) and our European Commission counterparts to develop new technology standards, coordinate investment screening and export controls, strengthening supply chains, promoting green technology, improving food security and digitizing infrastructure in developing countries.

At the same time, we and our European partners put on hold a 17-year-old aircraft lawsuit; now, instead of arguing with each other, we work to ensure a level playing field for our companies and workers in the industry.

Likewise, we worked with the EU and other countries to resolve steel and aluminum import disputes, and now we come together on a shared vision for higher climate standards, protecting our workers and industries from Beijing’s actions.

Beijing deliberately distorts the market for its own benefit.

We are working with the EU to protect the privacy of our citizens while strengthening a shared digital economy that relies on massive data flows.

Through the G20, we reached a landmark agreement on a global minimum tax to stop the race to the bottom, ensure big corporations get their fair share, and give countries more resources to invest in their own people.

To date, more than 130 countries have signed on.

We and our G7 partners are seeking a coordinated, high-standard and transparent approach to meeting the enormous infrastructure needs of developing countries.

We convened a global summit on defeating COVID-19 and restoring global democracy, and rejoined the UN Human Rights Council and the World Health Organization.

At a time of great testing, we and our allies have reinvigorated NATO, which is as strong as ever.

These actions are all aimed at defending and, if necessary, reforming the rules-based order that should benefit all nations.

We want to lead the competition in technology, climate, infrastructure, global health and inclusive economic growth.

We want to strengthen a system where as many countries as possible can unite for effective cooperation, resolve differences peacefully, and write their future as sovereign equality.

Our diplomacy is based on partnership and respect for each other's interests.

We do not expect every country to rate China the same as we do.

We know that many countries, including the United States, want to maintain important economic or cultural ties with China.

This is not about forcing countries to make choices

.

It's about giving them a choice, so, for example, the only option is not opaque investments that don't sink countries into debt, fuel corruption, damage the environment, fail to create local jobs or growth, and undermine countries in exercising their sovereignty.

Those deals can leave regrets, and we've heard buyers say it firsthand.

At every step, we are consulting with our partners, listening to them, taking their concerns to heart, and building solutions that address the unique challenges and priorities they face.

There is a growing consensus that a more realistic approach to relations with Beijing is needed.

Many of our partners already know from painful experience

how hard Beijing can crack down when they make choices they don't like

.

Just like last spring, when Beijing banned Chinese students and tourists from travelling to Australia and imposed an 80 per cent tariff on Australian barley exports, as the state government called for an independent inquiry into the origins of Covid-19.

Or last November, when Chinese Coast Guard ships used high-pressure water cannons to stop a Philippine Navy ship from resupplying in the South China Sea.

Such actions remind the world how Beijing is fighting back against what they see as the opposition.

U.S. involvement in Hong Kong and Xinjiang affairs has led to tensions in Sino-U.S. trade negotiations, but it is generally believed that it will not have a major impact.

The picture shows the towers of Xinqiang Kunshan Industrial Park on December 3, 2018.

(AP)

We have another thing in common with our allies and partners: human rights.

The United States stands with the nations and peoples of the world against

genocide and crimes against humanity in the Xinjiang region

, where more than one million people are held in internment camps based on their racial and religious identities.

We stand together in Tibet, where the authorities continue their brutal campaign against Tibetans and their cultural, linguistic and religious traditions, and in Hong Kong, where the Chinese Communist Party is imposing harsh anti-democratic measures under the guise of national security.

Now, Beijing insists these are to some extent internal matters that no one else has the right to raise.

That is wrong.

Its treatment of ethnic and religious minorities in Xinjiang and Tibet, among many others, violates the core principles of the UN Charter that Beijing has repeatedly cited, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to which all countries should abide.

Beijing has revoked Hong Kong's freedoms, violating a promise to carry out a transfer of sovereignty, also enshrined in a treaty deposited with the United Nations.

We will continue to ask these questions and call for change—not against China, but in defense of peace, security, and human dignity.

This brings us to the third element of our strategy.

Thanks to increased domestic investment and closer collaboration with allies and partners, we are well positioned to surpass China in key areas.

For example,

Beijing wants to place itself at the center of global innovation and manufacturing, increasing the technological dependence of other countries and then using that dependence to impose its foreign policy preferences.

Beijing will spare no effort to win this race—for example, by exploiting the openness of our economy to spying, hacking, and stealing technology and know-how to advance its military innovation and solidify its surveillance state.

So as we ensure the next wave of innovation in the United States and its allies and partners, we will also protect ourselves from efforts to steal our intellectual property or compromise our security.

We are sharpening our tools to protect our technological competitiveness.

This includes new and stricter export controls to ensure our critical innovations do not fall into the wrong hands; enhanced protections for academic research to create an open, safe and supportive environment for science; better cyber defenses ; strengthen the security of sensitive data; adopt stricter investment screening measures to protect companies and countries from Beijing’s efforts to gain access to sensitive technology, data, or critical infrastructure; disrupt our supply chains; or dominate key strategic areas.

We believe—and we hope the business community understands—that entering the Chinese market should never come at the expense of our core values ​​or long-term competitive and technological advantages.

We count on businesses to pursue growth responsibly, assess risks dispassionately, and work with us to not only protect but strengthen our national security.

長期以來,中國公司進入我們市場的機會遠遠超過我們在中國的公司。例如,美國人想看《中國日報》或通過微信進行交流是免費的,但《紐約時報》和Twitter對用中國人來說是禁止的,除非那些為政府工作的人利用這些平台傳播宣傳和虛假訊息。在華經營的美國公司一直承受系統性的強制技術轉讓,而在美的中國公司則受到我們法治的保護。中國電影人可以在不受美國政府審查的情況下向美國影院所有者自由推銷他們的電影,但北京嚴格限制允許進入中國市場的外國電影的數量,獲准進入市場的電影受到嚴厲的政治審查。在美國的中國企業不怕利用我們公正的法律體係來維護自己的權利——事實上,他們經常在法庭上對美國政府提出索賠。但在中國的外國公司來說,情況並非如此。

這種缺乏互惠是不可接受的,也是不可持續的。

或者想一下鋼鐵市場發生了什麼。北京指示中國公司進行大規模的過度投資,然後用廉價鋼鐵充斥全球市場。與美國公司和其他以市場為導向的公司不同,中國公司不需要盈利——它們只是在資金不足時再次注入國有銀行信貸。此外,他們幾乎沒有控制污染或保護工人的權利,這也降低了成本。因此,中國現在佔全球鋼鐵產量的一半以上,迫使美國公司以及印度、墨西哥、印尼、歐洲和其他地方的工廠退出市場。

我們在太陽能電池板、電動汽車電池——21世紀經濟的關鍵領域——我們不能讓它們完全依賴中國時看到了同樣的模式。

像這樣的經濟操縱已經讓美國工人失去了數百萬個工作崗位。他們傷害了世界各國的工人和公司。我們將抵制扭曲市場的政策和做法,例如補貼和市場准入壁壘,中國政府多年來一直利用這些政策和做法來獲得競爭優勢。我們在製藥和關鍵礦產等敏感行業將通過讓生產回流或從其他國家採購材料來提高供應鏈的安全性和彈性,這樣我們就不會依賴任何一家供應商。我們將與其他人站在一起反對經濟脅迫和恐嚇。我們將努力確保美國公司不從事促進或利好侵犯人權行為(包括強迫勞動)的商業活動。

簡而言之,我們將用我們擁有的一切工具為美國工人和工業而戰——正如我們知道我們的合作夥伴將為他們的工人而戰一樣。

美國不想將中國經濟與我們的經濟或全球經濟割裂——儘管北京儘管言辭激烈,但仍在尋求不對稱的脫鉤,試圖讓中國減少對世界的依賴,以及讓世界更加依賴中國。就我們而言,我們想要貿易和投資,只要它們是公平的並且不危害我們的國家安全。中國擁有強大的經濟資源,包括高素質的勞動力。我們相信,我們的員工、我們的公司將在公平的競爭環境中成功地競爭——我們歡迎這種競爭。

因此,當我們以負責任的方式抵制不公平的技術和經濟做法時,我們將努力維護連接美國和中國的經濟和民間聯繫,這符合我們的利益和價值觀。北京可能不願意改變自己的行為。但如須採取具體行動以解決我們和許多其他國家表達的關切,我們將作出積極回應。

競爭不一定會導致衝突。我們不尋求它。我們將努力避免它。但我們將捍衛我們的利益免受任何威脅。

圖為2020年7月6日,美國航母列根號(USS Ronald Reagan)(前)及尼米茲號(USS Nimitz)(後)在南海水域航行。(AP)

為此,拜登總統已指示國防部將中國作為其步步進逼的挑戰(pacing challenge),以確保我們的軍隊保持領先。我們將尋求通過一種我們稱之為「綜合威懾」的新方法來維護和平——引入盟友和合作夥伴;在常規、核、空間和資訊領域開展工作;利用我們在經濟、技術和外交方面不斷增強的優勢。

政府正在將我們的軍事投資從為20世紀衝突設計的平台轉向射程更遠、更難找到、更容易移動的不對稱系統。我們正在開發新的概念來指引我們如何進行軍事行動。我們正在使我們的部隊態勢和全球足跡多樣化,加強我們的網絡、重要的民用基礎設施和天基能力。我們也將幫助我們在該區的盟友和合作夥伴利用他們自己的不對稱能力。

我們將繼續反對北京在南海和東海的侵略和非法活動。近六年前,一個國際法庭認定北京在南海的主張沒有國際法依據。我們將支持該地區沿海國家維護其海洋權利。我們將與盟國和合作夥伴一起維護航行和飛越自由,這使該地區幾十年來一直繁榮。我們將繼續在國際法允許的地方飛行和航行。

在台灣,我們的做法在幾十年和幾屆政府中都是一致的。正如總統所說,我們的政策沒有改變。美國仍然致力於我們的「一個中國」政策,該政策以《台灣關係法》、三個聯合公報、六項保證為指導。我們反對任何一方單方面改變現狀;我們不支持台獨;我們期待兩岸分歧以和平方式解決。

我們在台海地區的和平與穩定始終有悠久的利益。我們將繼續履行我們在《台灣關係法》(TRA)下的承諾,協助台灣保持足夠的自衛能力,並且正如TRA中所指出的,「就任何形式的訴諸武力或其他形式的脅迫危害可能台灣的安全或社會或經濟制度,(我們)保持我們抵抗的能力。」我們與台灣有著牢固的非官方關係,它是一個充滿活力的民主和該區領先的經濟體。我們將繼續擴大與台灣在許多共同利益和價值觀上的合作,支持台灣有意義地參與國際社會,深化我們的經濟聯繫,符合我們的「一個中國」政策。

雖然我們的政策沒有改變,但改變的是北京日益增加的脅迫——比如試圖切斷台灣與世界各國的關係,阻止它參與國際組織。北京的言辭和活動愈來愈具有挑釁性,例如幾乎每天都在台灣附近都有解放軍飛機飛行。這些言行嚴重破壞穩定;他們冒着誤判的風險,威脅到台海的和平與穩定。正如我們從總統與印太地區盟友和夥伴的討論中看到的那樣,維護海峽兩岸的和平與穩定不僅符合美國的利益,而且還符合美國的利益。這是一個國際關注的問題,對區域和全球安全與繁榮至關重要。

正如拜登總統說的那樣,唯一比有意的衝突更糟糕的是一場無意的衝突。我們將負責任地管理這種關係,以防止這種情況發生。我們已將與北京的危機溝通和降低風險措施列為優先事項。在這個問題上——以及其他所有問題上——我們仍然致力於在激烈競爭的同時進行密集的外交。

即使在我們投資、結盟和競爭的同時,我們也會與北京合作,共同利益。我們不能讓分裂我們的分歧阻止我們在需要我們共同努力的優先事項上向前邁進,這是為了我們人民的利益和世界的利益。

這要從氣候開始。中國和美國多年來在氣候問題上陷入僵局,這使世界陷入僵局——但也有一些進步時期,這激發了世界的活力。 2013年中美啟動的氣候外交頻道釋放了產生《巴黎協定》的全球動力。去年在第26屆聯合國氣候變化大會(COP26)上,當美國和中國發表我們的格拉斯哥聯合聲明,共同解決甲烷到煤炭的排放問題時,世界的希望得到了支持。

氣候與意識形態無關。這是關於數學的。沒有中國的領導,就根本無法解決氣候變化問題,這個國家的排放量佔全球排放量的28%。美國際能源署已經明確表示,如果中國堅持目前的計劃,直到2030年才達到排放峰值,那麼世界其他地區必須在2035年之前達到零排放。這根本不可能。

今天,大約20個國家產生了80%的排放量。中國排名第一。美國排名第二。除非我們都做得更多、更快,否則財務和人力成本將是災難性的。此外,在清潔能源和氣候政策方面的競爭可以產生有益於所有人的結果。

美國和中國共同取得的進展——包括通過格拉斯哥宣言設立的工作組——對於我們成功避免這場危機的最壞後果至關重要。我敦促中國與我們一起加快這些共同努力的步伐。

圖為2022年4月1日上海當時最大的臨時集中隔離收治點啟用。4月1日,醫護人員在新國際博覽中心隔離區域幫助患者搬運行李。(新華社)

同樣,在新冠肺炎流行中,我們的命運是聯結在一起的。在中國人民應對這一最新一波疫情時,我們的心與他們同在。我們已經歷過新冠肺炎帶來的磨難。這就是為什麼我們如此堅信所有國家都需要共同努力為世界所有人接種疫苗——不是為了換取恩惠或政治讓步,而是因為一個簡單的原因,即在所有人都安全之前,任何國家都不會安全。所有國家都必須透明地共享數據和樣本——並讓專家前來訪問——以獲取新變種以及新出現和重新出現的病原體,以防止下一次疫情出現,即使我們正在與當前的疫情鬥爭。

在防擴散和軍備控制方面,維護減少大規模殺傷性武器擴散的規則、規範和條約符合我們所有人的利益。中國和美國必須繼續合作,並與其他國家合作,因應伊朗和朝鮮的核計劃。我們仍準備與北京直接討論我們各自作為核大國的責任。

為了打擊非法和非法麻醉品,特別是去年殺死超過10萬美國人的芬太尼等合成鴉片類藥物,我們希望與中國合作,阻止國際販毒組織獲取前體化學品,其中許多化學品來自中國。

由於全球糧食危機威脅着全世界人民,我們期待中國——一個在農業領域取得巨大成就的國家——幫助全球應對。上週在聯合國,美國召開了一次外長會議,以加強全球糧食安全。我們向中國發出了加入邀請。我們將繼續這樣做。

隨着世界經濟從大流行的破壞中復蘇,美國和中國之間的全球宏觀經濟協調是關鍵——通過G20、國際貨幣基金組織(IMF)、其他場所,當然還有雙邊。這個領域是伴隨成為世界上最大的兩個經濟體而來。

簡而言之,我們將在可能的情況下與中國進行建設性接觸,而不是作為對我們或任何其他人的好處,也絕不會以背離我們的原則為代價,而是因為共同努力解決重大挑戰,這是世界對大國的期望,以及因為這直接符合我們的利益。任何國家都不應因為雙邊分歧而在阻礙跨國議題處理的進展。

中華人民共和國構成的挑戰的規模和範圍將對美國外交進行前所未有的考驗。作為我現代化議程的一部分,我決心為國務院和我們的外交官提供他們需要的工具,以應對這一挑戰。這包括建立一個「中國院」(China house)——一個跨部門的綜合團隊,將協調和實施我們在各式問題和地區的政策,並根據需要與國會合作。在這裏,我必須提到我們駐北京大使館和我們在中國各地的領事館的一支優秀團隊,由伯恩斯大使領導。他們每天都做着出色的工作,最近幾週,許多人一直在這些密集的封鎖措施進行同時,完成他們的工作。儘管條件極端,但他們堅持了下來。我們感謝這個了不起的團隊。

我從未如此相信美國外交的力量和目的,也從未如此確信我們有能力應對這個決定性十年的挑戰。致美國人民:讓我們重新承諾投資於我們的核心優勢、我們的人民、我們的民主和我們的創新精神。正如拜登總統經常說的那樣,做空美國從來都不是一個好賭注。但讓我們賭上自己,在未來的競爭得勝。

對於各個致力於建設開放、安全、繁榮的未來的國家,讓我們共同努力,秉持共同進步的原則,捍衛每個國家書寫自己未來的權利。(我們)對中國人民來說:我們將是信心地進行競爭;我們將盡可能合作;我們將在必須競爭的地方競爭。我們沒看到衝突。

我們偉大的國家(指中美兩國)沒理由不能和平共處,共同分享以及一同促進人類進步。這就是我今天所說的一切歸結為:推動人類進步,為我們的孩子留下一個更和平、更繁榮、更自由的世界。

非常感謝您的聆聽。 (掌聲。)

圖為美國國務卿布林肯2022年5月26日在喬治華盛頓大學發表講話。他在演說中概述拜登政府的中國政策。這次活動由亞洲協會主辦。(AP)

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The Administration’s Approach to the People’s Republic of China

ANTONY J. BLINKEN, SECRETARY OF STATE

THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY

WASHINGTON, D.C.

SECRETARY BLINKEN: Thank you. Good morning.

It’s a real pleasure to be here at The George Washington University. This is an institution that draws outstanding students and scholars from around the world and where the most urgent challenges that we face as a country and a planet are studied and debated. So thank you for having us here today.

And I especially want to thank our friends at the Asia Society, dedicated to forging closer ties with the countries and people of Asia to try to enhance peace, prosperity, freedom, equality, sustainability. Thank you for hosting us today, but thank you for your leadership every day. Kevin Rudd, Wendy Cutler, Danny Russel – all colleagues, all thought leaders, but also doers, and it’s always wonderful to be with you.

And I have to say I am really grateful, Senator Romney, for your presence here today – a man, a leader, that I greatly admire, a person of tremendous principle, who has been leading on the subject that we’re going to talk about today. Senator, thank you for your presence.

And I’m also delighted to see so many members of the diplomatic corps because diplomacy is the indispensable tool for shaping our shared future.

In the past two years we’ve come together to fight the COVID-19 pandemic and prepare for future global health emergencies, rebuild from economic shocks, from supply-chain disruptions to debt crises, and take on climate change, and reimagine an energy future that’s cleaner, more secure, and more affordable.

The common denominator across these efforts is the simple fact that none of us can meet these challenges alone. We have to face them together.

That’s why we’ve put diplomacy back at the center of American foreign policy, to help us realize the future that Americans and people around the world seek – one where technology is used to lift people up, not suppress them; where trade and commerce support workers, raise incomes, create opportunity; where universal human rights are respected; countries are secure from coercion and aggression, and people, ideas, goods, and capital move freely; and where nations can both forge their own paths and work together effectively in common cause.

To build that future, we must defend and reform the rules-based international order – the system of laws, agreements, principles, and institutions that the world came together to build after two world wars to manage relations between states, to prevent conflict, to uphold the rights of all people.

Its founding documents include the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which enshrined concepts like self-determination, sovereignty, the peaceful settlement of disputes. These are not Western constructs. They are reflections of the world’s shared aspirations.

In the decades since, despite daunting challenges and despite the gap between our ideals and some of the results we’ve achieved, the countries of the world have avoided another world war and armed conflict between nuclear powers. We’ve built a global economy that lifted billions of people out of poverty. We’ve advanced human rights as never before.

Now, as we look to the future, we want not just to sustain the international order that made so much of that progress possible, but to modernize it, to make sure that it represents the interests, the values, the hopes of all nations, big and small, from every region; and furthermore, that it can meet the challenges that we face now and will face in the future, many of which are beyond what the world could have imagined seven decades ago.

But that outcome is not guaranteed because the foundations of the international order are under serious and sustained challenge.

Russian President Vladimir Putin poses a clear and present threat. In attacking Ukraine three months ago, he also attacked the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity, enshrined in the UN Charter, to protect all countries from being conquered or coerced. That’s why so many countries have united to oppose this aggression because they see it as a direct assault on the foundation of their own peace and security.

Ukraine is fighting valiantly to defend its people and its independence with unprecedented assistance from the United States and countries around the world. And while the war is not over, President Putin has failed to achieve a single one of his strategic aims. Instead of erasing Ukraine’s independence, he strengthened it. Instead of dividing NATO, he’s united it. Instead of asserting Russia’s strength, he’s undermined it. And instead of weakening the international order, he has brought countries together to defend it.

Even as President Putin’s war continues, we will remain focused on the most serious long-term challenge to the international order – and that’s posed by the People’s Republic of China.

China is the only country with both the intent to reshape the international order and, increasingly, the economic, diplomatic, military, and technological power to do it. Beijing’s vision would move us away from the universal values that have sustained so much of the world’s progress over the past 75 years.

China is also integral to the global economy and to our ability to solve challenges from climate to COVID. Put simply, the United States and China have to deal with each other for the foreseeable future.

That’s why this is one of the most complex and consequential relationships of any that we have in the world today.

Over the last year, the Biden administration has developed and implemented a comprehensive strategy to harness our national strengths and our unmatched network of allies and partners to realize the future that we seek.

We are not looking for conflict or a new Cold War. To the contrary, we’re determined to avoid both.

We don’t seek to block China from its role as a major power, nor to stop China – or any other country, for that matter – from growing their economy or advancing the interests of their people.

But we will defend and strengthen the international law, agreements, principles, and institutions that maintain peace and security, protect the rights of individuals and sovereign nations, and make it possible for all countries – including the United States and China – to coexist and cooperate.

Now, the China of today is very different from the China of 50 years ago, when President Nixon broke decades of strained relations to become the first U.S. president to visit the country.

Then, China was isolated and struggling with widespread poverty and hunger.

Now, China is a global power with extraordinary reach, influence, and ambition. It’s the second largest economy, with world-class cities and public transportation networks. It’s home to some of the world’s largest tech companies and it seeks to dominate the technologies and industries of the future. It’s rapidly modernized its military and intends to become a top tier fighting force with global reach. And it has announced its ambition to create a sphere of influence in the Indo-Pacific and to become the world’s leading power.

China’s transformation is due to the talent, the ingenuity, the hard work of the Chinese people. It was also made possible by the stability and opportunity that the international order provides. Arguably, no country on Earth has benefited more from that than China.

But rather than using its power to reinforce and revitalize the laws, the agreements, the principles, the institutions that enabled its success so that other countries can benefit from them, too, Beijing is undermining them. Under President Xi, the ruling Chinese Communist Party has become more repressive at home and more aggressive abroad.

We see that in how Beijing has perfected mass surveillance within China and exported that technology to more than 80 countries; how its advancing unlawful maritime claims in the South China Sea, undermining peace and security, freedom of navigation, and commerce; how it’s circumventing or breaking trade rules, harming workers and companies in the United States but also around the world; and how it purports to champion sovereignty and territorial integrity while standing with governments that brazenly violate them.

Even while Russia was clearly mobilizing to invade Ukraine, President Xi and President Putin declared that the friendship between their countries was – and I quote – “without limits.” Just this week, as President Biden was visiting Japan, China and Russia conducted a strategic bomber patrol together in the region.

Beijing’s defense of President Putin’s war to erase Ukraine’s sovereignty and secure a sphere of influence in Europe should raise alarm bells for all of us who call the Indo-Pacific region home.

For these reasons and more, this is a charged moment for the world. And at times like these, diplomacy is vital. It’s how we make clear our profound concerns, better understand each other’s perspective, and have no doubt about each other’s intentions. We stand ready to increase our direct communication with Beijing across a full range of issues. And we hope that that can happen.

But we cannot rely on Beijing to change its trajectory. So we will shape the strategic environment around Beijing to advance our vision for an open, inclusive international system.

President Biden believes this decade will be decisive. The actions that we take at home and with countries worldwide will determine whether our shared vision of the future will be realized.

To succeed in this decisive decade, the Biden administration’s strategy can be summed up in three words – “invest, align, compete.”

We will invest in the foundations of our strength here at home – our competitiveness, our innovation, our democracy.

We will align our efforts with our network of allies and partners, acting with common purpose and in common cause.

And harnessing these two key assets, we’ll compete with China to defend our interests and build our vision for the future.

We take on this challenge with confidence. Our country is endowed with many strengths. We have peaceful neighbors, a diverse and growing population, abundant resources, the world’s reserve currency, the most powerful military on Earth, and a thriving culture of innovation and entrepreneurship that, for example, produced multiple effective vaccines now protecting people worldwide from COVID-19.

And our open society, at its best, attracts flows of talent and investment and has a time-tested capacity for reinvention, rooted in our democracy, empowering us to meet whatever challenges we face.

First, on investing in our strength.

After the Second World War, as we and our partners were building the rules-based order, our federal government was also making strategic investments in scientific research, education, infrastructure, our workforce, creating millions of middle-class jobs and decades of prosperity and technology leadership. But we took those foundations for granted. And so it’s time to get back to basics.

The Biden administration is making far-reaching investments in our core sources of national strength – starting with a modern industrial strategy to sustain and expand our economic and technological influence, make our economy and supply chains more resilient, sharpen our competitive edge.

Last year, President Biden signed into law the largest infrastructure investment in our history: to modernize our highways, our ports, airports, rail, and bridges; to move goods to market faster, to boost our productivity; to expand high-speed internet to every corner of the country; to draw more businesses and more jobs to more parts of America.

We’re making strategic investments in education and worker training, so that American workers – the best in the world – can design, build, and operate the technologies of the future.

Because our industrial strategy centers on technology, we want to invest in research, development, advanced manufacturing. Sixty years ago, our government spent more than twice as much on research as a percentage of our economy as we do now – investments that, in turn, catalyzed private-sector innovation. It’s how we won the space race, invented the semiconductor, built the internet. We used to rank first in the world in R&D as a proportion of our GDP – now we’re ninth. Meanwhile, China has risen from eighth place to second.

With bipartisan congressional support, we’ll reverse these trends and make historic investments in research and innovation, including in fields like artificial intelligence, biotechnology, quantum computing. These are areas that Beijing is determined to lead – but given America’s advantages, the competition is ours to lose, not only in terms of developing new technologies but also in shaping how they’re used around the world, so that they’re rooted in democratic values, not authoritarian ones.

The leadership – Senator Romney and others – the House and Senate have passed bills to support this agenda, including billions to produce semiconductors here and to strengthen other critical supply chains. Now we need Congress to send the legislation to the President for his signature.

We can get this done, and it can’t wait – supply chains are moving now, and if we don’t draw them here, they’ll be established somewhere else. As President Biden has said, the Chinese Communist Party is lobbying against this legislation – because there’s no better way to enhance our global standing and influence than to deliver on our domestic renewal. These investments will not only make America stronger; they’ll make us a stronger partner and ally as well.

One of the most powerful, even magical things about the United States is that we have long been a destination for talented, driven people from every part of the planet. That includes millions of students from China, who have enriched our communities and forged lifelong bonds with Americans. Last year, despite the pandemic, we issued more than 100,000 visas to Chinese students in just four months – our highest rate ever. We’re thrilled that they’ve chosen to study in the United States – we’re lucky to have them.

And we’re lucky when the best global talent not only studies here but stays here – as more than 80 percent of Chinese students who pursue science and technology PhDs in the United States have done in recent years. They help drive innovation here at home, and that benefits all of us. We can stay vigilant about our national security without closing our doors.

We also know from our history that when we’re managing a challenging relationship with another government, people from that country or with that heritage can be made to feel that they don’t belong here – or that they’re our adversaries. Nothing could be further from the truth. Chinese Americans made invaluable contributions to our country; they’ve done so for generations. Mistreating someone of Chinese descent goes against everything we stand for as a country – whether a Chinese national visiting or living here, or a Chinese American, or any other Asian American whose claim to this country is equal to anyone else’s. Racism and hate have no place in a nation built by generations of immigrants to fulfill the promise of opportunity for all.

We have profound differences with the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese Government. But those differences are between governments and systems – not between our people. The American people have great respect for the Chinese people. We respect their achievements, their history, their culture. We deeply value the ties of family and friendship that connect us. And we sincerely wish for our governments to work together on issues that matter to their lives and to the lives of Americans, and for that matter the lives of people around the world.

There’s another core source of national strength that we’ll be relying on in this decisive decade: our democracy.

A hundred years ago, if asked what constitutes the wealth of a nation, we might list the expanse of our land, the size of our population, the strength of our military, the abundance of our natural resources. And thankfully, we’re still wealthy in all of those attributes. But more than ever, in this 21st century, the true wealth of a nation is found in our people – our human resources – and our ability to unleash their full potential.

We do that with our democratic system. We debate, we argue, we disagree, we challenge each other, including our elected leaders. We deal with our deficiencies openly; we don’t pretend they don’t exist or sweep them under the rug. And though progress can feel painfully slow, can be difficult and ugly, by and large we consistently work toward a society where people from all backgrounds can flourish, guided by national values that unite, motivate, and uplift us.

We are not perfect. But at our best, we always strive to be – in the words of our Constitution – a more perfect union. Our democracy is designed to make that happen.

That’s what the American people and the American model offer, and it’s one of the most powerful assets in this contest.

Now, Beijing believes that its model is the better one; that a party-led centralized system is more efficient, less messy, ultimately superior to democracy. We do not seek to transform China’s political system. Our task is to prove once again that democracy can meet urgent challenges, create opportunity, advance human dignity; that the future belongs to those who believe in freedom and that all countries will be free to chart their own paths without coercion.

The second piece of our strategy is aligning with our allies and partners to advance a shared vision for the future.

From day one, the Biden administration has worked to re-energize America’s unmatched network of alliances and partnerships and to re-engage in international institutions. We’re encouraging partners to work with each other, and through regional and global organizations. And we’re standing up new coalitions to deliver for our people and meet the tests of the century ahead.

Nowhere is this more true than in the Indo-Pacific region, where our relationships, including our treaty alliances, are among our strongest in the world.

The United States shares the vision that countries and people across the region hold: one of a free and open Indo-Pacific where rules are developed transparently and applied fairly; where countries are free to make their own sovereign decisions; where goods, ideas, and people flow freely across land, sky, cyberspace, the open seas, and governance is responsive to the people.

President Biden reinforced these priorities this week with his trip to the region, where he reaffirmed our vital security alliances with South Korea and Japan, and deepened our economic and technology cooperation with both countries.

He launched the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity, a first-of-its-kind initiative for the region. It will, in the President’s words, “help all our countries’ economies grow faster and fairer.” IPEF, as we call it, renews American economic leadership but adapts it for the 21st century by addressing cutting-edge issues like the digital economy, supply chains, clean energy, infrastructure, and corruption. A dozen countries, including India, have already joined. Together, IPEF members make up more than a third of the global economy.

The President also took part in the leaders’ summit of the Quad countries – Australia, Japan, India, the United States. The Quad never met at the leader level before President Biden took office. Since he convened the first leaders’ meeting last year, the Quad has held four summits. It’s become a leading regional team. This week, it launched a new Indo-Pacific Partnership for Maritime Domain Awareness, so our partners across the region can better monitor the waters near their shores to address illegal fishing and protect their maritime rights and their sovereignty.

We’re reinvigorating our partnership with ASEAN. Earlier this month, we hosted the U.S.-ASEAN Summit to take on urgent issues like public health and the climate crisis together. This week, seven ASEAN countries became founding members of the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework. And we’re building bridges among our Indo-Pacific and European partners, including by inviting Asian allies to the NATO summit in Madrid next month.

We’re enhancing peace and stability in the Indo-Pacific; for example, with the new security partnership between Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States, known as AUKUS.

And we’re helping countries in the region and around the world defeat COVID-19. To date, the United States has provided nearly $20 billion to the global pandemic response. That includes more than 540 million doses of safe and effective vaccines donated – not sold – with no political strings attached, on our way to 1.2 billion doses worldwide. And we’re coordinating with a group of 19 countries in a global action plan to get shots into arms.

As a result of all of this diplomacy, we are more aligned with partners across the Indo-Pacific, and we’re working in a more coordinated way toward our shared goals.

We’ve also deepened our alignment across the Atlantic. We launched the U.S.-EU Trade and Technology Council last year, marshaling the combined weight of nearly 50 percent of the world’s GDP. Last week, I joined Secretary Raimondo, Ambassador Tai, and our European Commission counterparts for our second meeting to work together on new technology standards, coordinate on investment screening and export controls, strengthen supply chains, boost green tech, and improve food security and digital infrastructure in developing countries.

Meanwhile, we and our European partners set aside 17 years of litigation about aircraft; now, instead of arguing with each other, we’re working to secure a level playing field for our companies and workers in that sector.

Similarly, we worked with the European Union and others to resolve a dispute on steel and aluminum imports, and now we’re coming together around a shared vision on higher climate standards and protecting our workers and industries from Beijing’s deliberate efforts to distort the market to its advantage.

We’re partnering with the European Union to protect our citizens’ privacy while strengthening a shared digital economy that depends on vast flows of data.

With the G20, we reached a landmark deal on a global minimum tax to halt the race to the bottom, make sure that big corporations pay their fair share, and give countries even more resources to invest in their people. More than 130 countries have signed on so far.

We and our G7 partners are pursuing a coordinated, high-standard, and transparent approach to meet the enormous infrastructure needs in developing countries.

We’ve convened global summits on defeating COVID-19 and renewing global democracy, and rejoined the UN Human Rights Council and the WHO, the World Health Organization.

And at a moment of great testing, we and our allies have re-energized NATO, which is now as strong as ever.

These actions are all aimed at defending and, as necessary, reforming the rules-based order that should benefit all nations. We want to lead a race to the top on tech, on climate, infrastructure, global health, and inclusive economic growth. And we want to strengthen a system in which as many countries as possible can come together to cooperate effectively, resolve differences peacefully, write their own futures as sovereign equals.

Our diplomacy is based on partnership and respect for each other’s interests. We don’t expect every country to have the exact same assessment of China as we do. We know that many countries – including the United States – have vital economic or people-to-people ties with China that they want to preserve. This is not about forcing countries to choose. It’s about giving them a choice, so that, for example, the only option isn’t an opaque investment that leaves countries in debt, stokes corruption, harms the environment, fails to create local jobs or growth, and compromises countries’ exercise of their sovereignty. We’ve heard firsthand about buyer’s remorse that these deals can leave behind.

At every step, we’re consulting with our partners, listening to them, taking their concerns to heart, building solutions that address their unique challenges and priorities.

There is growing convergence about the need to approach relations with Beijing with more realism. Many of our partners already know from painful experience how Beijing can come down hard when they make choices that it dislikes. Like last spring, when Beijing cut off Chinese students and tourists from traveling to Australia and imposed an 80 percent tariff on Australian barley exports, because Australia’s Government called for an independent inquiry into COVID’s origin. Or last November, when Chinese Coast Guard vessels used water cannons to stop a resupply of a Philippine navy ship in the South China Sea. Actions like these remind the world of how Beijing can retaliate against perceived opposition.

There’s another area of alignment we share with our allies and partners: human rights.

The United States stands with countries and people around the world against the genocide and crimes against humanity happening in the Xinjiang region, where more than a million people have been placed in detention camps because of their ethnic and religious identity.

We stand together on Tibet, where the authorities continue to wage a brutal campaign against Tibetans and their culture, language, and religious traditions, and in Hong Kong, where the Chinese Communist Party has imposed harsh anti-democratic measures under the guise of national security.

Now, Beijing insists that these are somehow internal matters that others have no right to raise. That is wrong. Its treatment of ethnic and religious minorities in Xinjiang and Tibet, along with many other actions, go against the core tenets of the UN Charter that Beijing constantly cites and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that all countries are meant to adhere to.

Beijing’s quashing of freedom in Hong Kong violates its handover commitments, enshrined in a treaty deposited at the United Nations.

We’ll continue to raise these issues and call for change – not to stand against China, but to stand up for peace, security, and human dignity.

That brings us to the third element of our strategy. Thanks to increased investments at home and greater alignment with allies and partners, we are well-positioned to outcompete China in key areas.

For example, Beijing wants to put itself at the center of global innovation and manufacturing, increase other countries’ technological dependence, and then use that dependence to impose its foreign policy preferences. And Beijing is going to great lengths to win this contest – for example, taking advantage of the openness of our economies to spy, to hack, to steal technology and know-how to advance its military innovation and entrench its surveillance state.

So as we make sure the next wave of innovation is unleashed by the United States and our allies and partners, we’ll also protect ourselves against efforts to siphon off our ingenuity or imperil our security.

We’re sharpening our tools to safeguard our technological competitiveness. That includes new and stronger export controls to make sure our critical innovations don’t end up in the wrong hands; greater protections for academic research, to create an open, secure, and supportive environment for science; better cyber defenses; stronger security for sensitive data; and sharper investment screening measures to defend companies and countries against Beijing’s efforts to gain access to sensitive technologies, data, or critical infrastructure; compromise our supply chains; or dominate key strategic sectors.

We believe – and we expect the business community to understand – that the price of admission to China’s market must not be the sacrifice of our core values or long-term competitive and technological advantages. We’re counting on businesses to pursue growth responsibly, assess risk soberly, and work with us not only to protect but to strengthen our national security.

For too long, Chinese companies have enjoyed far greater access to our markets than our companies have in China. For example, Americans who want to read the China Daily or communicate via WeChat are free to do so, but The New York Times and Twitter are prohibited for the Chinese people, except those working for the government who use these platforms to spread propaganda and disinformation. American companies operating in China have been subject to systematic forced technology transfer, while Chinese companies in America have been protected by our rule of law. Chinese filmmakers can freely market their movies to American theater owners without any censorship by the U.S. Government, but Beijing strictly limits the number of foreign movies allowed in the Chinese market, and those that are allowed are subjected to heavy-handed political censorship. China’s businesses in the United States don’t fear using our impartial legal system to defend their rights – in fact, they’re frequently in court asserting claims against the United States Government. The same isn’t true for foreign firms in China.

This lack of reciprocity is unacceptable and it’s unsustainable.

Or consider what happened in the steel market. Beijing directed massive over-investment by Chinese companies, which then flooded the global market with cheap steel. Unlike U.S. companies and other market-oriented firms, Chinese companies don’t need to make a profit – they just get another injection of state-owned bank credit when funds are running low. Plus, they do little to control pollution or protect the rights of their workers, which also keeps costs down. As a consequence, China now accounts for more than half of global steel production, driving U.S. companies – as well as factories in India, Mexico, Indonesia, Europe, and elsewhere – out of the market.

We’ve seen this same model when it comes to solar panels, electric car batteries – key sectors of the 21st century economy that we cannot allow to become completely dependent on China.

Economic manipulations like these have cost American workers millions of jobs. And they’ve harmed the workers and firms of countries around the world. We will push back on market-distorting policies and practices, like subsidies and market access barriers, which China’s government has used for years to gain competitive advantage. We’ll boost supply chain security and resilience by reshoring production or sourcing materials from other countries in sensitive sectors like pharmaceuticals and critical minerals, so that we’re not dependent on any one supplier. We’ll stand together with others against economic coercion and intimidation. And we will work to ensure that U.S. companies don’t engage in commerce that facilitates or benefits from human rights abuses, including forced labor.

In short, we’ll fight for American workers and industry with every tool we have – just as we know that our partners will fight for their workers.

The United States does not want to sever China’s economy from ours or from the global economy – though Beijing, despite its rhetoric, is pursuing asymmetric decoupling, seeking to make China less dependent on the world and the world more dependent on China. For our part, we want trade and investment as long as they’re fair and don’t jeopardize our national security. China has formidable economic resources, including a highly capable workforce. We’re confident that our workers, our companies will compete successfully – and we welcome that competition – on a level playing field.

So as we push back responsibly on unfair technology and economic practices, we’ll work to maintain economic and people-to-people ties connecting the United States and China, consistent with our interests and our values. Beijing may not be willing to change its behavior. But if it takes concrete action to address the concerns that we and many other countries have voiced, we will respond positively.

Competition need not lead to conflict. We do not seek it. We will work to avoid it. But we will defend our interests against any threat.

To that end, President Biden has instructed the Department of Defense to hold China as its pacing challenge, to ensure that our military stays ahead. We’ll seek to preserve peace through a new approach that we call “integrated deterrence” – bringing in allies and partners; working across the conventional, the nuclear, space, and informational domains; drawing on our reinforcing strengths in economics, in technology, and in diplomacy.

The administration is shifting our military investments away from platforms that were designed for the conflicts of the 20th century toward asymmetric systems that are longer-range, harder to find, easier to move. We’re developing new concepts to guide how we conduct military operations. And we’re diversifying our force posture and global footprint, fortifying our networks, critical civilian infrastructure, and space-based capabilities. We’ll help our allies and partners in the region with their own asymmetric capabilities, too.

We’ll continue to oppose Beijing’s aggressive and unlawful activities in the South and East China Seas. Nearly six years ago, an international tribunal found that Beijing’s claims in the South China Sea have no basis in international law. We’ll support the region’s coastal states in upholding their maritime rights. We’ll work with allies and partners to uphold freedom of navigation and overflight, which has enabled the region’s prosperity for decades. And we’ll continue to fly and sail wherever international law allows.

On Taiwan, our approach has been consistent across decades and administrations. As the President has said, our policy has not changed. The United States remains committed to our “one China” policy, which is guided by the Taiwan Relations Act, the three Joint Communiques, the Six Assurances. We oppose any unilateral changes to the status quo from either side; we do not support Taiwan independence; and we expect cross-strait differences to be resolved by peaceful means.

We continue to have an abiding interest in peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait. We’ll continue to uphold our commitments under the Taiwan Relations Act to assist Taiwan in maintaining a sufficient self-defense capability – and, as indicated in the TRA, to “maintain our capacity to resist any resort to force or other forms of coercion that would jeopardize the security or the social or economic system, of Taiwan.” We enjoy a strong unofficial relationship with Taiwan, a vibrant democracy and leading economy in the region. We’ll continue to expand our cooperation with Taiwan on our many shared interests and values, support Taiwan’s meaningful participation in the international community, deepen our economic ties, consistent with our “one China” policy.

While our policy has not changed, what has changed is Beijing’s growing coercion – like trying to cut off Taiwan’s relations with countries around the world and blocking it from participating in international organizations. And Beijing has engaged in increasingly provocative rhetoric and activity, like flying PLA aircraft near Taiwan on an almost daily basis. These words and actions are deeply destabilizing; they risk miscalculation and threaten the peace and stability of the Taiwan Strait. As we saw from the President’s discussions with allies and partners in the Indo-Pacific, maintaining peace and stability across the strait is not just a U.S. interest; it is a matter of international concern, critical to regional and global security and prosperity.

As President Biden likes to say, the only conflict worse than an intended one is an unintended one. We’ll manage this relationship responsibly to prevent that from happening. We’ve prioritized crisis communications and risk reduction measures with Beijing. And on this issue – and every other – we remain committed to intense diplomacy alongside intense competition.

Even as we invest, align, and compete, we’ll work together with Beijing where our interests come together. We can’t let the disagreements that divide us stop us from moving forward on the priorities that demand that we work together, for the good of our people and for the good of the world.

That starts with climate. China and the United States had years of stalemate on climate, which gridlocked the world – but also periods of progress, which galvanized the world. The climate diplomacy channel launched in 2013 between China and the United States unleashed global momentum that produced the Paris Agreement. Last year at COP26, the world’s hopes were buoyed when the United States and China issued our Glasgow Joint Declaration to work together to address emissions from methane to coal.

Climate is not about ideology. It’s about math. There’s simply no way to solve climate change without China’s leadership, the country that produces 28 percent of global emissions. The International Energy Agency has made clear that if China sticks with its current plan and does not peak its emissions until 2030, then the rest of the world must go to zero by 2035. And that’s simply not possible.

Today about 20 nations are responsible for 80 percent of emissions. China is number one. The United States is number two. Unless we all do much more, much faster, the financial and human cost will be catastrophic. Plus, competing on clean energy and climate policy can produce results that benefit everyone.

The progress that the United States and China make together – including through the working group established by the Glasgow Declaration – is vital to our success in avoiding the worst consequences of this crisis. I urge China to join us in accelerating the pace of these shared efforts.

Likewise, on the COVID-19 pandemic, our fates are linked. And our hearts go out to the Chinese people as they deal with this latest wave. We’ve been through our own deeply painful ordeal with COVID. That’s why we’re so convinced that all countries need to work together to vaccinate the world – not in exchange for favors or political concessions, but for the simple reason that no country will be safe until all are safe. And all nations must transparently share data and samples – and provide access to experts – for new variants and emerging and re-emerging pathogens, to prevent the next pandemic even as we fight the current one.

On nonproliferation and arms control, it’s in all of our interests to uphold the rules, the norms, the treaties that have reduced the spread of weapons of mass destruction. China and the United States must keep working together, and with other countries, to address Iran and North Korea’s nuclear programs. And we remain ready to discuss directly with Beijing our respective responsibilities as nuclear powers.

To counter illegal and illicit narcotics, especially synthetic opioids like fentanyl that killed more than 100,000 Americans last year, we want to work with China to stop international drug trafficking organizations from getting precursor chemicals, many of which originate in China.

As a global food crisis threatens people worldwide, we look to China – a country that’s achieved great things in agriculture – to help with a global response. Last week at the United Nations, the United States convened a meeting of foreign ministers to strengthen global food security. We extended an invitation to China to join. We’ll continue to do so.

And as the world’s economy recovers from the devastation of the pandemic, global macroeconomic coordination between the United States and China is key – through the G20, the IMF, other venues, and of course, bilaterally. That comes with the territory of being the world’s two largest economies.

In short, we’ll engage constructively with China wherever we can, not as a favor to us or anyone else, and never in exchange for walking away from our principles, but because working together to solve great challenges is what the world expects from great powers, and because it’s directly in our interest. No country should withhold progress on existential transnational issues because of bilateral differences.

The scale and the scope of the challenge posed by the People’s Republic of China will test American diplomacy like nothing we’ve seen before. I’m determined to give the State Department and our diplomats the tools that they need to meet this challenge head on as part of my modernization agenda. This includes building a China House – a department-wide integrated team that will coordinate and implement our policy across issues and regions, working with Congress as needed. And here, I must mention an outstanding team at our embassy in Beijing and our consulates across China, led by Ambassador Nick Burns. They do exceptional work every day, and many have been doing their jobs in recent weeks through these intense COVID lockdowns. Despite extreme conditions, they’ve persisted. We’re grateful for this terrific team.

I’ve never been more convinced about the power and the purpose of American diplomacy or sure about our capacity to meet the challenges of this decisive decade. To the American people: let’s recommit to investing in our core strengths, in our people, in our democracy, in our innovative spirit. As President Biden often says, it’s never a good bet to bet against America. But let’s bet on ourselves and win the competition for the future.

To countries around the world committed to building an open, secure, and prosperous future, let’s work in common cause to uphold the principles that make our shared progress possible and stand up for the right of every nation to write its own future. And to the people of China: we’ll compete with confidence; we’ll cooperate wherever we can; we’ll contest where we must. We do not see conflict.

There's no reason why our great nations cannot coexist peacefully, and share in and contribute to human progress together. That's what everything I've said today boils down to: advancing human progress, leaving to our children a world that's more peaceful, more prosperous, and more free.

Thank you very much for listening. (Applause.)

Blinken's speech on China with no new ideas is false and unreal and unfinished. Blinken delivered a speech on China policy. The "Chinese Academy" of the State Council was established to promote the foreign affairs of China. New Cold War Blinken's China Policy Speech Says China Is the Most Serious Long-Term Challenge to the International Order

Source: hk1

All news articles on 2022-05-27

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