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The 5 key proposals of Gustavo Petro to be president of Colombia

2022-06-19T11:58:34.974Z

From a change in the economic model to the reform of the Armed Forces, a review of Gustavo Petro's key proposals for the Colombian elections.



Petro responds if he would run again for other elections if he does not win 6:21

(CNN Spanish) --

The formula of Gustavo Petro and Francia Márquez exceeded 40% of the votes in the first round.

The program of the Historical Pact headed by Petro - who defines himself as a "progressive" leftist in a highly traditional and right-wing country - raises the need for profound reforms in areas as diverse as the economic model and the functioning of the Armed Forces.

Here, a review of his main proposals.

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1 Change in the economic model: promotion of agricultural production and agrarian reform

Petro and Márquez's program proposes a radical change in the economic model that promotes agricultural production.

A key in this framework is the implementation of an agrarian reform that attacks inequality in ownership and use of land, guaranteeing the right to land of rural families (with women as a priority) and the formalization of the property, among other measures.

Its objective is to discourage large estates.

Petro has insisted in recent statements, as can be seen in this video, that they are not going to expropriate but to democratize.

"I have never uttered the word expropriation," he said in part of a heated debate with one of his main opponents, 'Fico' Gutiérrez.

In April, Petro and Márquez signed a document in a notary's office in which they promised not to expropriate.

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The program proposes to renegotiate free trade agreements.

Francia Márquez's message to the Colombian business community 1:09

  • What does Gustavo Petro propose in terms of economy, work and taxes to be president of Colombia?

2 Commitment to the care of the territory and change in the energy matrix

The program details the measures to protect ecosystems and natural resources, with an expanded mention of water, a resource that, they say, should be the axis for land use planning.

In this context, it should be remembered that Colombia is, as reported by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, one of the most mega-diverse countries in the world: it ranks second in terms of biodiversity.

Hand in hand with these proposals comes that of making an energy transition from the matrix dependent on oil and coal to renewable energies.

Petro and Márquez want to put an end to extractivism, and affirm that they will prohibit the exploration and exploitation of unconventional deposits, they will stop pilot fracking projects and the development of offshore deposits, they will not grant new licenses for hydrocarbon exploration nor will they allow large-scale mining open sky

(Márquez won the Goldman Prize in 2018, something like a 'Nobel Prize for the Environment').

Francia Márquez (Credit: JOAQUIN SARMIENTO/AFP via Getty Images)

At the international level, they propose promoting an "American front to fight climate change, which includes rescuing the Amazon jungle."

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3 Measures to promote equality for women

They propose increasing the political participation of women: that they occupy "50% of all public positions at all levels and branches of power" and that there be a Ministry of Equality in charge of articulating policies related to gender.

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Another fundamental pillar, in which the formula coincides with other candidates, is the creation of a National Care System that seeks to recognize and reduce the burden of care tasks on women.

The time dedicated to care will be recognized as work and rewarded. 

How does climate change exacerbate inequality?

2:41

In terms of increasing economic power, the program proposes that women have priority access to public higher education, credit, and the distribution and formalization of land ownership.

Petro also proposes that a basic minimum income be guaranteed above the poverty line "to protect and empower women heads of households."

The battery of measures also points to the fight against violence, proposing the creation of a "national early warning system" to combat femicides, and intends to abide by the decision of the Constitutional Court to decriminalize abortion.

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The government program also proposes specific policies for other minorities that have historically been violated: Afro-descendants, indigenous people, blacks, Raizales, Palenqueros and Roma.

It also has a chapter dedicated to the LGBTIQ community.

  • What do the main candidates of the elections in Colombia propose in terms of gender?

4 Changes in the security forces: dismantling of Esmad, end of compulsory military service and more

Petro and Márquez's program proposes moving towards the "demilitarization of social life", affirming the prevalence of civil authorities over military ones.

Within the framework of the proposed reform for the Armed Forces, military service will no longer be compulsory and conscientious objection will be respected.

In addition, it is proposed that all members of the Armed Forces have access to higher education and more training in areas such as Human Rights, as well as adjustments in the mechanisms to advance in the career, salary and pension systems.

The Historical Pact affirms that it will promote the elimination of military criminal proceedings and proposes that the investigation processes in military justice be strengthened.

The changes will also include the National Police, which according to the program of the formula would have to go from the orbit of the Ministry of Defense to that of the Interior or Justice.

The objective, they say, is to recover its "civil character".

One of the key proposals is the dismantling of Esmad, the controversial Mobile Riot Squad, which has recently come under fire for its actions that, for many, are violent and abusive.

  • What is Esmad, Colombia's Mobile Riot Squad, and why is it so controversial?

Petro's program, at this point, places special emphasis on providing guarantees "for the exercise of the rights to freedom of expression, mobilization and social protest."

The chapter on security also highlights the need to defend social leaders (in 2021 alone, according to the Ombudsman's Office, 145 social leaders and human rights defenders were murdered).

In his justification for the reform of the Armed Forces, Petro argues that the end of the armed conflict makes it necessary to adjust roles.

Regarding the Peace Agreement with the FARC, Petro recently said that from the first day of his government, in case he wins, "the protocols that the Government (of Juan Manuel) Santos signed with the States that guarantee Peace will be recognized. " and that they will initiate "the integral peace process with all the actors of the violence".

The Historical Pact program proposes the creation of "the conditions to advance in an effective dialogue and negotiation with the ELN" that "collects the lessons learned from the Final Peace Agreement with the FARC."

5 Tax reform: taxes on "the 4,000 largest fortunes"

For the Historical Pact, the current tax system has a "clear bias in favor of excessively rich people."

Petro proposes a tax reform that, among other aspects, focuses on dividends: it will be mandatory to declare them and they will always have to pay taxes.

In statements during the campaign, Petro explained to whom the greatest tax burden would be directed: "On the 4,000 largest fortunes in Colombia," he said, adding that, within that set, they will not target productive companies but rather unproductive assets, mentioning dividends and transfers abroad.

The Historical Pact also proposes that no one who receives resources from the State can have accounts in the countries known as "tax havens".

The goal is for the country's fiscal space to increase about 5.5 points of GDP per year through increased collection, but also through the dismantling of tax benefits that according to Petro are not fair and policies against evasion.

In the economic field, another of the proposals on which the debate has focused is that of pensions.

Here, a review of what each candidate proposes in this regard.

With information from Florencia Trucco, Melissa Velásquez, Juan Carlos López and Germán Padinger.

MEET THE CANDIDATES:

  • Gustavo Petro

  • Rodolfo Hernandez

Elections ColombiaGustavo Petro

Source: cnnespanol

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