The state funeral of Queen Elizabeth II was held yesterday (September 19).
Since her death on September 8, tens of millions of people around the world have been in mourning. In addition to the subjects of the British Empire, some people in Hong Kong, which had been under British colonial rule for more than a hundred years, were also saddened.
Under the political split, "Mourning" has become an "universal key" for different camps to get what they need. Some people expressed their dissatisfaction with the failure of the SAR government's governance and the central government's active governance of Hong Kong by praising the Queen of England. They may not know that the development and advancement of Hong Kong in the past has nothing to do with the virtual monarch of the United Kingdom; In-depth study - why are Hong Kong people in a kind of historical nihilism?
What kind of cultural genes do you have?
What kind of cognitive construction and psychological shaping have you experienced?
"The Queen and the People of Hong Kong" Series No. 3
The state funeral of Queen Elizabeth II was held yesterday (September 19).
(Vadim Ghirda/The Associated Press)
The Queen's Death Becomes the "Universal Key"
Different Political Factions Get What They Need
After 70 years on the throne, at the age of 96, the Queen's state funeral was held at Westminster Abbey in London yesterday.
In the 11 days since her death, the local mourning flow has never stopped; in Hong Kong, a small island that was once ruled by the British colonies, thousands of miles away, the British Consulate General in Hong Kong has been open for several days to pay tribute to the public, and there are also tens of thousands of people. Under the scorching sun, the citizens lined up to express their condolences——
Some are to say goodbye to the elders who have watched Hong Kong grow up, just as veteran artists Law Ka Ying and Carina Lau said, "The Queen of England is my elder, watching me grow old, Hong Kong is a blessed land under her shade", "In the ever-changing world. Her passing is an irreplaceable loss in our time"; some are in memory of the leaders who fulfilled their responsibilities and were close to the people, just as the convener of the Executive Council, Ye Liu Shuyi, described the "Queen of England as a diligent, conscientious, and beloved by everyone." There are also some big political articles, either expressing their dissatisfaction with the SAR administration by praising the Queen of England, or embarrassing the central government by praising the colonial administration, such as some opinion leaders who fled abroad, emphasizing that "the British Civilization is better than the so-called Chinese civilization." He also said that "that long human dragon is equivalent to proclaiming the indomitable life of Hong Kong people."
However, no matter what the purpose is, it will inevitably lead to a lot of criticism, especially mainland netizens, who really scoff at the mourning behavior of Hong Kong citizens, and they often scold "foreign slaves", "loving colonists", "snobby" and "forgetting ancestors" , "beautify the war of aggression", etc., it is impossible to understand that this small island has undergone centuries of colonization and has been injected with different cultural genes.
Law Ka-ying was then reprimanded for "praising colonial rule and hurting national feelings", and later needed to delete the post and make a video to apologize; Carina Lau also became the target of public criticism, and was bombarded with "colonial slaves", "two-faced people", "you hurry up and accompany the old woman" .
The problem is that those who praise the Queen of England's achievements in Hong Kong may not know that the development of Hong Kong in the past has nothing to do with the virtual monarch of the United Kingdom; and those who cannot understand the frustration of Hong Kong people have not explored the origin of Hong Kong people and historical nihilism. .
However, apart from the emotional catharsis caused by the political tear, in fact, the mourning behavior of Hong Kong citizens and even all over the world is itself a typical social phenomenon, and it also fully reflects the reasons why the constitutional monarchy is "popular" around the world.
On September 9, a large number of citizens braved the hot weather to lay flowers and write condolences at the British Consulate-General in Admiralty.
(Photo by Xia Jialang)
One-way grief of millions of people around the world is
like a "star chaser" without support
"Millions mourning the Queen: What is the science behind public mourning?" The world authoritative academic journal "Nature" published this report a few days ago (September 14), trying to use "Parasocial Relationships" (also translated as "Parasocial Relationships") "Extra-social relations", "quasi-social relations") psychological theories explain why people around the world express one-sided intense grief over the death of a world-famous public figure they may have never met.
The so-called "quasi-social relationship" is a psychological theory proposed by psychologists Donald Horton and Richard Wohl as early as 1956 to describe a unilateral relationship between the public and public figures, and to produce a pseudo-social interaction with it. , that is, "chasing stars" - when fans have some kind of emotional interaction with stars through the media, they will think that they are establishing a real social relationship with the other party, and regard them as their real friends or relatives, and it is easy to be affected by the other party's words and deeds. touched.
Later, Gayle Stever, a media psychologist, extended the "parasocial relationship" to "parasocial attachments". Just like the deep connection between parents to children or lovers to lovers, when a star's appearance in the media becomes a fan's feeling A comfortable, safe haven creates an attachment that desires closer proximity.
The "Nature" report quoted Louise Richardson, co-director of the "Sorrow Research Project" at the University of York in the United Kingdom, as saying that the death of the Queen of England has directly led to the interruption of the pseudo-social relationship that people have established with her through the media for a long time, which means that the individual originally deeply identified with her. The world becomes incomplete, that is, their basic assumptions about this world are seriously disturbed, so sadness arises.
Philosopher and ethicist Michael Cholbi of the University of Edinburgh said that this kind of grief is not because of the loss of a person, but because people think that they will lose a way of life and lose some noble qualities.
However, Andy Langford, a clinical psychologist who is engaged in grief treatment in London, believes that although people's emotions and sorrows are real, because most people do not have a real personal relationship with the Queen of England, I believe that everyone depends on the intensity of their emotions. Not high, so the public's one-way sentiment will fade quickly, and the mourning will not last too long.
For some people who truly respect the Queen's governance, if they use "star chasing" to compare their relationship with the Queen, it may be difficult to accept; however, taking Hong Kong as an example, you might as well think about why this man made a decision on Hong Kong. The Queen of England, who has no substantial influence, will her title and image as "the head of affairs" be deeply rooted in the hearts of the older generation in Hong Kong?
Why are you so impressed by the people-friendly style you left behind when you visited Hong Kong twice in 1975 and 1986, during which you visited housing estates and went shopping?
Did the bits and pieces related to the "Queen of England" and "Hong Kong people" unknowingly form some kind of consciousness or connection for everyone?
More importantly, to a certain extent, the establishment of that "quasi-social relationship" is the basis for the worldwide popularity of the constitutional monarchy, which makes the movements of the royal family always attract attention, as if the affairs of the royal family are their own affairs.
Whether people are supporters of a constitutional monarchy or not, there is always some kind of escape from reality that can be sought through royal news.
The royal fairy tale is a "realistic redemption" where
the monarch reconciles the nobles and stabilizes the commoners
At present, there are 26 countries in the world that retain monarchy systems, including 12 in Asia, 10 in Europe, 3 in Africa, and 1 in Oceania. Leading the real power, integrating the country's executive, legislative, judicial and military power; the rest is a constitutional monarchy, that is, on the premise of retaining the monarchy, through the constitution to establish the people's sovereignty, limit the power of the monarchy, and achieve republicanism or democracy.
The United Kingdom, which implements a constitutional monarchy, has the royal family with the most influence in the world and the most global attention – it once governed 1/4 of the world’s territory and 1/3 of the population; the royal family’s activities always present a detached extravagance, luxury, and ritual. And culture; whether it’s a wedding or funeral, a court fight, or a family gossip, it always instantly attracts the attention of “royal fans” around the world—and no matter whether people are supporters of the constitutional monarchy, they can always look for something through royal news. Salvation from reality.
However, these royal fans rarely think about why they are "submitted" by the British royal family?
The late famous mainland sociologist Wang Kang once published the article "The Confusion of Kings - On the Relationship between the King and the Subjects of Contemporary Constitutional Monarchies", pointing out that the key reason why the ancient political system of constitutional monarchy still has a large political market is that " The constitutional monarchy just caters to the common people’s pursuit of democracy, and at the same time conforms to the law of the development of human social hierarchy.
Let’s talk about reconciling nobles first.
The constitutional monarchy originated from the British bourgeois revolution. Since its birth, it has been accompanied by the struggle and game between the king and the emerging nobles. After the restoration of the monarchy and the palace coup, it was finally stabilized after the promulgation of the Bill of Rights in 1689, and the king "completed his role. Change”, and accept the reality that the country is not one person’s selfishness, no longer resentful towards the aristocracy, but use it with each other through a subtle pro-aristocratic hierarchy, including awarding honors, conferring titles, and giving royal care.
To this day, the royal family is still willing to use this method, "giving the soft asset of nobility to the social elite and making it a nobility", bringing it under the authority and halo of the monarch; and because they are active in different fields, they have received They are the backbone of society with different education, a solid background, and a large amount of resources. They have a strong sense of pride and superiority in their contributions, and are eager to be respected by the country and the public. Comparable nobility and honor, they must also strive to maintain the monarchy.
Not to mention the stability of civilians.
The monarch clearly understands that he cannot rely entirely on the nobles. After all, they are only a minority, so "the monarch has to shine the light of the jewels in the crown on the commoners."
This awareness has contributed to "the monarch gradually completes the transition from the role of an autocratic ruler to a savior" and introduced the people-based thinking and behavior, "even if it is only symbolic, which greatly strengthens its legitimacy, as a symbol of hierarchy and centralization in the The monarch is not under any threat in a democratic society." This also leads to the "royal appearance" that people often see from the media - the monarch exercises certain symbolic actions such as declaring war, amnesty, issuing decrees, diplomatic etiquette, etc. State power, as well as engaging in charitable and public welfare activities, thereby establishing its prestige and goodwill in the hearts of the people; especially in times of national and social crisis, the monarch, as a spiritual leader, cannot be underestimated in its appeal and appeal, and can maintain stability, unite the people, and comfort the people. Calm down and give hope.
Take Queen Elizabeth II as an example. In 1940, she temporarily stayed away from her family to avoid German bombing. Later, she broadcasted as a princess for the first time on the radio, expressing her empathy for separation to British children evacuated to North America; by 2020, As the coronavirus outbreak hit the UK, she spoke again, encouraging her people to fend off the virus with the bulldog tenacity of wartime Britons.
The more vivid political personalities of the royal family make it easier for ordinary people to understand the British form of government and are willing to obey emotionally, which in turn enables the entire constitutional system to be recognized by a wide range of citizens.
The picture shows people waiting to pay their respects to Queen Elizabeth II.
Deliberately constructed national personality
to meet people's abstract needs
"The monarchy has continued to this day, partly because the monarch has completed the transition from an autocratic dictator to a role that benefits the people and becomes a symbol of the country and nation. It is also because in a pluralistic capitalist society, the monarch is more than parties and interest groups. In addition, the monarch represents the country’s political neutrality and takes into account the interests of all strata. In the contest of political power, the monarch will not tend to any one side, but will always appear as a reconciling force.” Wang Kang concluded in this way, but he also emphasized The reason why people today are willing to place the hopes of the nation and the interests of the country on the monarch is because the monarch will not confuse his own interests with the interests of the people, so that he can become a "symbol of goodness", not simply because the monarch is a monarch.
In fact, the British royal family really understands how the constitutional monarchy can be popular.
As early as 1867, the economist and political theorist Walter Bagehot, who was the editor of The Economist at the time, wrote the book "The British Constitution", which already pointed out the importance of the various rituals of the British royal family to the British constitutional system.
He believes that the more vivid political personalities of the royal family help ordinary people more easily understand the form of government in Britain and are willing to obey emotionally, which in turn enables the entire constitutional system to be recognized by a wide range of citizens.
He emphasized that the key to modern politics and constitutionalism is to provide an authoritative image that is easy to understand and imagine, and a gentle and amiable monarch is the best choice.
Such a "personality" is destined for the monarch to have a "split personality" in order to meet people's abstract needs.
The German-American historian of medieval political thought Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz described in his famous book "The Two Bodies of the King" that the king has a "natural body" and a "political body" that can be separated. The concrete image of the huge political community conceived is also the source of its qualification to exercise all state power.
Just like the old English legal principle adage: The king does nothing wrong.
(King can do no wrong.)——The natural body of the king is bound to make mistakes, so it can be replaced, but the political body of the king must always be pure and always correct, in order to assume the responsibility as a representative of the state, enjoy the rights as a symbol of the state, and fulfill the It is an obligation as a national personality to continue the culture as a national tradition.
Therefore, the subjects of their own country will always willingly pay for the extravagance and extravagance of the royal family and the monarch, and the people of other countries can't help but participate in this imagination, form psychological identification, and achieve inner obedience.
This is the case all over the world, not to mention Hong Kong, which was once colonized by the British Empire for more than 150 years...