Robertson, aka "Razor" ("Razor"), is currently the coach of the New Zealand team Crusaders.
He will replace Ian Foster, who "will lead the All Blacks until the end of the 2023 Rugby World Cup in France," said New Zealand Rugby.
Robertson was chosen over Jamie Joseph, the current Japan coach.
His contract will last until the end of the 2027 World Cup in Australia.
New Zealand Rugby has hailed Robertson's unparalleled success at national level, and his reputation as an innovative coach.
"His coaching record speaks for itself in terms of success, but what stood out during the interview process was his innovative approach to the game, his passion for his players and his desire to contribute. to the legacy of the All Blacks," said FA chief executive Mark Robinson.
Former third-line wing of the All Blacks, Robertson has coached the Crusaders since 2017, which he led to six successive Super Rugby titles.
But he never coached a national team.
Ian Foster, who announced in early March that he would not be seeking a new contract, had been under pressure since last year due to the All Blacks' erratic performances, including a losing streak against Ireland and their first home defeat against Argentina.
New Zealand Rugby had taken the unusual step of starting the recruitment process well before Foster's contract expired, ostensibly to prevent rival international teams from poaching Robertson.